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Analogy literally means ‘similarity’ having similar features. Questions on analogy test the ability of a candidate to understand the relationship between two given objects in mind that are asked in the question.
This type of question covers all types of relationships that one thinks about. There are many ways of establishing a relationship.
It must be borne in mind that a candidate’s intellectual skill is important to analyse the similarity between two or more objects, yet a rich knowledge of usages of different words adds to one’s performance.
Important types of Analogy
Synonym Based Analogy
In such a type of analogy, two words have a similar meaning.
|Big: Large||Huge : Gigantic|
|Endless : Eternal||Thin : Slim|
|Benevolent : Kind||Notion : Idea|
Antonym Based Analogy
In such a type of analogy, the two words of the question pair are opposite in meaning.
|Poor : Rich||Fat : Slim|
|Tall : Short||Big : Small|
|Light : Dark||Avoid : Meet|
Tool and Object Based Analogy
This establishes a relationship between a tool and the object in which it works.
|Pencil : Paper||Pen : Paper|
|Scissors : Cloth||Saw : Wood|
|Eraser : Paper||Filter : Water|
Worker & Tool Based Analogy
This establishes a relationship between a particular tool and the person of that particular profession who uses that tool.
|Writer : Pen||Painter : Brush|
|Cricketer : Bat||Blacksmith : Hammer|
|Barber : Scissors||Hunter : Gun|
Worker and Product Based Analogy
This type of analogy gives a relationship between a person of a particular profession and his/her creations.
|Batsman : Run||Writer : Book|
|Author : Novel||Singer : Song|
|Poet : Poem||Journalist : News|
Causes and Effect Based Analogy
In such a type of analogy, 1st-word acts and the 2nd-word is the effect of that action.
|Work : Tiredness||Bath : Freshness|
|Race : Fatigue||Shoot : Kill|
|Infection : Disease||Food : Energy|
Gender Based Analogy
In such a type of analogy, one word is masculine and another word is feminine of that word.
|Man : Woman||Boy : Girl|
|Nephew : Niece||Bull : Cow|
|Duck : Drake||Lion : Lioness|
Classification Based Analogy
This type of analogy is based on biological, physical, chemical or any other classification. In such problems, the 1st word may be classified by the 2nd word and vice-versa.
|Cow : Animal||Girl : Human|
|Oxygen : Gas||Water : Liquid|
|Snake : Reptile||Parrot : Bird|
Function Based Analogy
In such a type of analogy, 2nd word describes the function of the 1st word.
|Singer : Sings||General : Commands|
|Player : Plays||Surgeon : Operates|
|Spoon : Feed||Microscope : Magnify|
Quantity and Unit Based Analogy
In such a type of analogy, 2nd word is the unit of the 1st word and vice-versa.
|Distance : Mile||Mass : Kilogram|
|Length : Metre||Force : Newton|
|Power : Watt||Temperature : Degree|
Product & Raw Material Based Analogy
In such a type of analogy, the 1st word is the raw material and 2nd word is the end product of that raw material and vice-versa.
|Yarn : Fabric||Milk : Curd|
|Flour : Bread||Latex : Rubber|
|Grape : Wine||Fruit : Juice|
Utility Based Analogy
In such a type of analogy, the 2nd word shows the purpose of the 1st word or vice-versa.
|Pen : Writing||Food : Eating|
|Chair : Sitting||Bed : Sleeping|
|Bat : Playing||Steering : Drive|
Symbolic Relationship Based Analogy
In such a type of analogy, the 1st word is the symbol of the 2nd word and vice-versa.
|White : Peace||Red : Danger|
|Black : Sorrow||Red Cross : Hospital|
|Swastika : Fortune||Yellow : Flood|
Adult abd Young one Based Analogy
In such a type of analogy, the 1st word is the adult one and 2nd word is the young one of the 1st word or vice-versa.
|Cow : Calf||Human : Child|
|Dog : Puppy||Duck : Duck ling|
|Goat : Kid||Tiger : Cub|
Subject and Specialist Based Analogy
In such a type of analogy, the 2nd word is the specialist of the 1st word (subject) or vice-versa.
|Heart : Cardiologist||Skin : Dermatologist|
|Pediatrics : Children||Ophthalmologist : Eye|
|Geologist : Earth Science|
Habit Based Analogy
In this type of analogy 2nd word is the habit of 1st and vice-versa.
|Cat : Omnivorous||Tiger : Carnivorous|
|Cow : Herbivorous||Goat : Herbivorous|
Instrument and Measurement Based Analogy
We see in this type of analogy, the 1st word is the instrument to measure the 2nd word and vice-versa.
|Hygrometer : Humidity||Barometer : Pressure|
|Thermometer : Temperature||Sphygmomanometer : Blood pressure|
Individual and Group Based Analogy
The 2nd word is the group of 1st word (or vice-versa) in such type of analogy.
|Cow : Herd||Sheep : Flack|
|Grapes : Bunch||Singer : Chorus|
State and Capital Based Analogy
In this type of analogy, 1st word is the state and 2nd word is the capital of that state (or vice-versa).
|Bihar : Patna||West Bengal : Kolkata|
|Maharashtra : Mumbai||Karnataka : Bangluru|
Country and Capital Based Analogy
In this type of analogy, 1st word is the country and 2nd word is the capital of that country (or vice-versa).
|Rome : Italy||Muskat : Oman|
|Lima : Peru||Accra : Ghana|
|Oslo : Norway||Delhi : India|
Individual and Dwelling Place Based Analogy
In such a type of analogy, 1st word is the individual and 2nd word is the dwelling place of that individual (1st word) and vice-versa.
|Horse : Stable||Bee : Apiary|
|Dog : Kennel||Birds : Aviary|
|Monk : Monastery||Human : House|
Worker and Working Place Based Analogy
In this type of analogy, the 1st word represents a person of a particular profession and 2nd word represents the working place of that person (1st word) and vice-versa.
|Doctor : Hospital||Clerk : Office|
|Cook : Kitchen||Professor : College|
|Teacher : School||Lawyer : Court|
Topic and Study Based Analogy
1st word is the study of the 2nd word (or vice-versa) in the analogy.
|Birds : Ornithology||Earth quakes : Seismology|
|Botany : Plants||Zoology : Animals|
|Mycology : Fungi||Histology : Tissues|
Trophy and Game Based Analogy
|Ranji Trophy : Cricket||Dhyan Chand Trophy : Hockey|
|Thomas Cup : Badminton||Uber Cup : Badminton|
Product and Raw Material Based Analogy
|Metal : Ore||Bread : Flour|
|Curd : Milk||Wine : Grapes|
|Butter : Milk||Wall : Brick|
Individual and Group/class
|Man : Crowd||Flowers : Bouquet|
|Fish : Shoal||Sheep : Flock|
|Cattle : Herd||Singer : Chorus|
Organ and Disease
|Liver : Jaundice||Eye : Cataract|
|Kidney : Stone|
Analogy Based on Alphabet
1. Forward Alphabetical Sequence
- CD : FG :: PQ : ST
- EGI : MOQ :: UWY : CEG
2. Backward Alphabetical Sequence
- DC : GF :: QP : TS
- IGE : QOM :: YWU : GEC
3. Vowel–Consonant Relation
Example: ATL : EVX :: IPR : ORS
Here, the 1st two words start with the 1st two vowels A and E and the next two words start with the next two vowels I and O. Last two letters of every word are consonants.
4. Skip Letter Relation
Example: ABC : FGH :: IJK : NOP
Here between ABC and FGH two letters (D and E) skip. Similarly, between IJK and NOP two letters (L and M) skip.
5. Jumbled Letters Relation
1. LAIN : NAIL :: EVOL : LOVE
Here the 1st term gets reversed to produce the 2nd term and similar relation is shown between the 3rd and 4th term.
2. ABCD : OPQR :: WXYZ : KLMN
Each letter of the 1st group ‘ABCD’ is moved fourteen steps forward to obtain the corresponding letter of the 2nd group ‘OPQR’. A similar relation is established between the 3rd group ‘WXYZ’ and the 4th group ‘KLMN.’