Important Facts about India



The official Sanskrit name for India is Bharat. INDIA has been called Bharat even in Satya yuga (Golden Age). The name `India’ is derived from the River Indus, the valleys around which were the home of the early settlers. The Aryan worshippers referred to the river Indus as the Sindhu. The Persian invaders converted it into Hindu. The name `Hindustan’ combines Sindhu and Hindu and thus refers to the land of the Hindus.

India is the Largest democracy in the world, the 7th largest country in the world and one of the most ancient and living civilizations.

Although modern images & descriptions of India often show poverty, India was one of the richest countries till the time of British in the early 17th Century. Christopher Columbus was attracted by India’s wealth and was looking for route to India when he discovered America by mistake.

The number system was invented by India. Aryabhatta was the scientist who invented the digit zero. The ‘place value system’ and the ‘decimal system’ were developed in 100 BC in India. The University of Nalanda built in the 4th century was one of the greatest achievements of ancient India in the field of education.

Ayurveda is the earliest school of medicine known to mankind. The father of medicine, Charaka, consolidated Ayurveda 2500 years ago. The value of “pi” was first calculated by the Indian Mathematician Budhayana, and he explained the concept of what is known as the Pythagorean Theorem. He discovered this in the 6th century, which was long before the European mathematicians.

Algebra, trigonometry and calculus also orignated from India. Quadratic equations were used by Sridharacharya in the 11th century. The largest numbers the Greeks and the Romans used were 10^6 whereas Hindus used numbers as big as 10^53 with specific names as early as 5000 B.C. during the Vedic period. Even today, the largest used number is Tera: 10^12.

Sushruta is regarded as the father of surgery. Over 2600 years ago Sushrata & his team conducted complicated surgeries like cataract, artificial limbs, cesareans, fractures, urinary stones and also plastic surgery and brain surgeries.

Usage of anesthesia was well known in ancient India medicine. Detailed knowledge of anatomy, embryology, digestion, metabolism, physiology, etiology, genetics and immunity is also found in many ancient Indian texts.

India: At a Glance


New Delhi



Area-wise in
the world


in the world



India extends between latitudes 8o4’N and 37o6’N.
It is a country of the east with its landmass lying between longitudes 68o7’E
and 97o25’E.


Kilometers from north to south 2,933 Kilometers from east to west


15,200 km


7516.5 km

Neighbouring Countries

India shares its political borders with
Pakistan and Afghanistan on the west and Bangladesh and Myanmar on the east.
The northern boundary is made up of the Sinkiang province of China, Tibet,
Nepal and Bhutan. India is separated from Sri Lanka by a narrow channel of
sea formed by the Palk Strait and Gulf of Mannar


The mainland
consists of four well-defined regions:

(i)The great mountain zone,

Indo-Gangetic plain,

desert region and

Southern Peninsula


The main rivers of the Himalayan group are the
Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra.


There are
four seasons which are recognised by the India
Meteorological department. They are – Cold weather, hot weather, rainy season
and the season of the retreating south-west monsoon.


Approx. 89,451 species


Total 1,210,193,422


Males 623,724,248


Females 586,469,174


Total 74.04%


Males 82.14%


Females 65.46%

Density of
population per km


Sex ratio
per 1000 males


Child Sex
ratio (0–6 age group) per 1000 males

914 females



National Things

National Flag

The National Flag is the horizontal tricolor of deep saffron (kesaria) at the top, white in the middle, and dark green at the bottom in equal proportion. At the center of the white band is a navy blue wheel, which is a representation of the Ashoka Chakra at Sarnath.

National Emblem

The National Emblem of India is derived from the time of the Emperor Ashoka. The emblem is a replica of the Lion of Sarnath, near Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh. The Lion Capital was erected in the third century BC by Emperor Ashoka to mark the spot where Buddha first proclaimed his gospel of peace and emancipation to the four quarters of the universe.

National Anthem

The Jana Gana Mana is the national Anthem of India, composed by Rabindranath Tagore. It was officially adopted by the constituent Aseembly as the Indian national anthem on January 24, 1950.

National Song

Bankim Chandra Chatterji’s composed song “Vande Mataram” was adopted as the National Song. It has an equal status with “Jana Gana Mana”. It was first sung in the 1896 session of the Indian National Congress.

National Animal

Tiger is the National Animal of India. It is symbol of India’s wildlife wealth. The magnificent tiger, Panthera tigris, is a striped animal.

National Bird

The Peacock, Pavo cristatus, is the national bird of India. Emblematic of qualities such as beauty grace, pride.

National Fruit

Mango is the national fruit of India. Described as the “Food of the Gods”, in the sacred Vedas, the fruit is grown almost in all parts of India.

National Flower

Lotus botanically known as the Nelumbo Nucifera is the national flower of India.

National Tree

Banyan Tree is the National Tree of India. This huge tree towers over its neighbours and has the widest reaching roots of all known trees.

National Calendar

The Saka calendar is the national calendar of India. It is used, alongside the Gregorian calendar.

National Days
  • 26th January (Republic Day)
  • 15th August (Independence Day)
  • 2nd October (Gandhi Jayanti; Mahatma Gandhi’s Birthday)


Country Name: Republic of India; Bharat Ganrajya

Government Type: Sovereign Socialist Democratic Republic with a Parliamentary system of Government

Official Languages: Hindi, English

Administrative Division: 28 States and 7 Union Territories.

Independence 15th August 1947 (From the British Colonial Rule)

Constitution: The Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950.

Legislature: Sansad

Legal System: The Constitution of India is the fountain source of the legal system in the Country.

Executiv Branch: The President of India is the Head of the State, while Prime Minister is the Head of the Government, and runs office with the support of Council of Ministers who form the Cabinet Ministry.

Legislativ Branch: The Indian Legislature comprises of the Lok Sabha (House of the people) and the Rajya Sabha (Council of States) forming both the Houses of the Parliament.

Judicia Branch: The Supreme Court of India is the apex body of the Indian legal system, followed by other High Courts and subordinate Courts.

Facts about India

  • India is the world’s largest, oldest, continuous civilization.
  • India is the world’s Largest democracy.
  • India never invaded any country in her last 1000 years of history.
  • When many cultures were only nomadic forest dwellers over 5000 years ago, Indians established Harappan culture in Sindhu Valley (Indus Valley Civilization)
  • There are 300,000 active mosques in India , more than in any other country, including the Muslim world
  • Chess (Shataranja or AshtaPada) was invented in India.
  • India is one of the few countries in the world, which gain independence without violence.
  • India has the second largest pool of Scientist and Engineers in the World.
  • India is the largest English speaking nation in the world.
  • India is the only country other than US and Japan, to have built a super computer indigenously.
  • India has the largest number of Post Offices in the world
  • One of the largest employer in the world is the Indian Railways , employing over a million people
  • The Baily Bridge is the highest bridge in the world. It is located in the Ladakh valley between the Dras and Suru rivers in the Himalayan mountains. It was built by the Indian Army in August 1982
  • The Vishnu Temple in the city of Tirupathi built in the 10th century, is the world’s largest religious pilgrimage destination. Larger than either Rome or Mecca, an average of 30,000 visitors donate $6 million (US) to the temple everyday.
  • Varanasi, also known as Benaras, was called “the Ancient City” when Lord Buddha visited it in 500 B.C., and is the oldest, continuously inhabited city in the world today.
  • Martial Arts were first created in India, and later spread to Asia by Buddhist missionaries.
  • Yoga has its origins in India and has existed for over 5,000 years.

First in India




President of Indian Republic

Dr. Rajendra Prasad

Prime Minister of free India

Pt. Jawahar Lai Nehru

Indian to win Nobel Prize

Rabindranath Tagore

President of Indian National Congress

W. C. Banerjee

Muslim President of Indian National Congress

Badruddin Tayyabji

Muslim President of India

Dr. Zakir Hussain

British Governor General of India

Lord William Bentinck

British Viceroy of India

Lord Canning

Governor General of free India

Lord Mountbatten

Indian to be Governor General of free India

C. Rajgopalachari

Man who introduced printing press in India

James Hicky

Indian to join the I.C.S.

Satyendra Nath Tagore

Man in space

Rakesh Sharma

Prime Minister of India who resigned

without completing the full term


Morarji Desai

Indian Commander – in – Chief of India

General Cariappa

Chief of the Army Staff

Gen. Maharaj Rajendra Singhji

Indian member of the Viceroy’s executive council

S. P. Sinha

President of India who died while in office

Dr. Zakir Hussain

Prime Minister of India who did not face the Parliament

Charan Singh

Field Marshal of India

S.H.F. Manekshaw

Indian to get Nobel prize in Physics

C.V. Raman

Indian to receive Bharat Ratna award

Dr. Radhakrishnan

Indian to cross English channel

Mihir Sen

person to receive Jnanpith award

Sri Shankar Kurup

Speaker of the Lok Sabha

Ganesh Vasudeva Mavalankar

Vice – President of India

Dr. Radhakrishnan

Education Minister

Abul Kalam Azad

Home Minister of India

Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel

Indian Air Chief Marshal

S. Mukherjee

Indian Naval Chief

Vice Admiral R. D. Katari

judge of International Court of Justice

Dr. Nagendra Singh

Person to receive Paramveer Chakra

Major Somnath Sharma

Person to reach Mt. Everest without oxygen

Sherpa Anga Dorjee

Chief Election Commissioner

Sukumar Sen

Person to receive Magsaysay Award

Acharya Vinoba Bhave

Person of Indian origin to receive Nobel Prize in Medicine

Hargovind Khurana

Chinese traveller to visit India


Person to receive Stalin Prize

Saifuddin Kitchlu

Person to resign from the central cabinet

Shyama Prasad Mukherjee

Foreigner to receive Bharat Ratna

Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan

Person to receive Nobel Prize in Economics

Amartya Sen

Chief Justice of Supreme Court

Justice Hiralal J. Kania





The first lady to become “Miss World”

Rita Faria

The first woman judge in Supreme Court

Mrs. Meera Sahib Fatima Bibi

The first woman Ambassador

Miss C.B. Muthamma

The first woman Governor of a State in free India

Mrs. Sarojini Naidu

The first woman Prime Minister

Mrs. Indira Gandhi

The first woman to climb Mount Everest

Bachhendri Pal

The first woman to climb Mount Everest twice

Santosh Yadav

The first woman President of the Indian National Congress

Mrs. Annie Besant

The first woman chief justice of a High Court

Mrs. Leela Seth

The first woman pilot in Indian Air Force

Harita Kaur Dayal

The first woman President of the UN General Assembly

Mrs. Vijaya Laxmi Pandit

The first woman Chief Minister of an Indian State

Mrs. Sucheta Kripalani

The first woman chairman of UPSC

Roze Millian Bethew

The first woman Director General of Police (DGP)

Kanchan Chaudhary Bhattacharya

The first woman Lieutenant General

Puneeta Arora

The first woman Air Vice Marshal

P. Bandopadhyaya

The first woman chairperson of Indian Airlines

Sushma Chawla

The first woman I.P.S. Officer

Mrs. Kiran Bedi

The first and the last Muslim woman ruler of Delhi

Razia Sultan

The first woman to receive Ashoka Chakra

Nirja Bhanot

The first woman to cross English Channel

Aarti Saha

The first woman to receive Nobel Prize

Mother Teresa

The first woman to receive Bharat Ratna

Mrs. Indira Gandhi

The first woman to receive Jnanpith Award

Ashapurna Devi

Important Sites in India


City / State


Aurangabad ( Maharashtra )

Akbar’s Tomb

Sikandara (Uttar Pradesh )

Ambernath Cave

Kashmir ( Jammu & Kashmir )

Amber Palace

Jaipur (Rajasthan )

Anand Bhavan

Allahabad ( Uttar Pradesh )

Bhakra Dam

Punjab ( Punjab )

Birla Planetarium

Kolkata ( West Bengal )

Black Pagoda

Konark (Orissa )

Bodhisattva (Ajanta Caves )

Aurangabad ( Maharashtra )

Brihadeeswara Temple

Tanjore (Tamil Nadu )

Brindavan Gardens

Mysore ( Karnataka )

Buland Darwaza

Fatepur Sikri ( Uttar Pradesh )


Hyderabad ( Andhra Pradesh )

Chenna Kesava Temple

Belur (West Bengal )

Chilka Lame

Near Bhubaneswar ( Orissa )

Dal Lake

Srinagar ( Jammu & Kashmir )

Dilwara Temples

Mt. Abu ( Rajasthan )

Elephanta Caves

Mumbai ( Maharashtra )

Golden Temple

Amirtsar (Punjab )

Gol Gumbaz

Bijapur (Karnataka )

Hanging Gardens

Mumbai ( Maharashtra )

Hawa Mahal ( Palace of Winds)

Jaipur (Rajasthan )

Mahakaleeswar Temple

Ujjain ( Madhya Pradesh )

Mahesuramurthi ( Trimurti )

Elephanta Caves ( Maharashtra )

Howrah Bridge

Kolkata ( West Bengal )

Island Palace

Udaipur ( Rajasthan )

ItmadudDaulah’s Tomb

Agra ( Uttar Pradesh )

Jagannath Temple

Puri (Orissa )

Jama Masjid

Delhi ( Delhi )

Jantar Mantar

New Delhi ( Delhi )

Jog ( Geresoppa ) Falls

Mysore ( Karnataka )

Kailasanath Temples

Ellora (Maharashtra )

Kanyakumari Temples

Kanyakumari (Tamil Nadu )

Khajuraho Temples

Bhopal ( Madhya Pradesh )

Konark Temple

Puri (Orissa )

Lal Bagh Gardens

Bangalore ( Karnataka )

Malabar Hills

Mumbai ( Maharashtra )

Manmandir Palace

Gwalior Fort ( Madhya Pradesh )

Marble Rocks

Jabalpur ( Madhya Pradesh )

Marina Beach

Chennai ( Tamil Nadu )

Meenakshi Temple

Madurai ( Tamil Nadu )

Padmanabha Temple

Trivandrum ( Kerala )

Panch Mahal

Fatepur Sikri ( Uttar Pradesh )

Tower of Fame

Chittorgarh (Rajasthan )

Thiruvalluvar Statue

Kanyakumari (Tamil Nadu )

Vivekananda Memorial

Kanyakumari (Tamil Nadu )

Foreign Invader Visitors to India

The first European Invader on Indian soil

Alexander, the Great

The first European to visit India

Marco Polo

The first Chinese Pilgrim who came to India


The first British Prime Minister to visit India

Harold Macmillan

The First U.S. President to visit India

D. Elsenhower

The first Soviet Prime Minister to visit India

V. Bulganin

Geographical Epithets



Golden City


Manchester of India


City of Seven islands


Queen of Arabian Sea


Space City


Garden City of India


Silicon Valley of India


Electronic city of India


Pink City


Gateway of India


Twin City

Hyderabad –Sikandarabad

City of festivals


Deccan Queen


City of Buildings


Dakshin Ganga


Old Ganga


Egg bowls of Asia

Andhra Pradesh

Soya region

Madhya Pradesh

Manchester of the South


City of Nawabs


Venice of the east


Sorrow of Bengal

Damodar River

Sorrow of Bihar

Kosi River

Blue Mountains


Queen of the Mountains

Mussoorie (Uttaranchal)

Sacred river


Hollywood of India


City of Castles


State of five rivers