Geography of India

Geographical Location of India
  • Lying between latitude 42 N to 37°62 N and from longitude 68°72 E to 97°252 E, the country is divided into almost equal parts by the Tropic of Cancer (passes from Jabalpur in MP).
  • The southernmost point in Indian Territory, (in Great Nicobar Island) is the Indira Point (6°452 ), while Kanyakumari, also known as Cape Comorin, is the southernmost point of Indian mainland. The country thus lies wholly in the northern and eastern hemispheres.
  • The 82°302 E longitude is taken as the Standard Time Meridian of India, as it passes through the middle of India(from Naini, near Allahabad).

Agriculture in India

Cropping Seasons in India

Kharif Crops

  • Sown in summers between May and July, and harvested after the rains, in September and October.
  • Eg: Rice, Jowar, Bajra, Maize, Cotton, Jute, Sugarcane, Tobacco, Groundnut, Pulses, etc.

Rabi Crops

  • Sown at the beginning of winter and harvested before the onset of the summer season, between Feb and April.
  • Eg: Wheat, barley, oilseeds, gram, potatoes, etc.

Zayad Crops

  • They are raised between April and June.
  • E.g. : Melon, watermelon, cucumber, toris, leafy and other vegetables. Cash Crops of India (Commercial Crops)
  • Grown mainly for the market, only a small portion of the product is consumed by the farmers themselves (cotton, sugarcane etc.)


Mineral Resources of India

Coal: West Bengal (Raniganj, Burdwan, Bankura, Purulio, Birbhum, Jalpaigudi, Darjeeling), Jharkhand (Jharia, Giridih, Kharhawadi, Bokaro, Hazaribagh, Kamapura, Rampur, Palamau), Orissa (Rampur, Hindgir, Talcher, Sambal), Madbya Pradesh and Chhatisgarh (Rewa, Pench valley, Umaria, Korba, Sohagpur, Mand river area, Kanha valley, Betul), etc.

Manganese: Orissa, Maharashtra (Nagpur, Bhandara, Ratnagiri), Madhya Pradesh (Balaghat, Chhindawara), Karnataka(Keonjhar, Bonai, Kalahandi), Andhra Pradesh (Kadur, Garibadi

Copper: Madhya Pradesh (Balaghat), Rajasthan (Khetri), Jharkhand (Singhbhum, Masobani, Surda), Karnataka (Chitradurg, Hassan).

Mica: Jharkhand (Hazaribagh, Giridih, Kodarma), Bihar (Goya, Bhagalpur), Andhra Pradesh (Guntur, Vizag, Kurnool), Rajasthan (Bhilwara, Udaipur, Jaipur).

Petroleum: Assam (Digboi, Naharkatiya, Badarpur, Masinpur and Pallharia), Gujarat, (Ankleshwar, Khambat, Kalol), Mumbai High, Bassein (south of Mumbai High), etc. Recently oil has been discovered in Cauvery basin, Krishna and Godavary basin, Khambat basin, etc.

Iron: India possesses Haematite, a very high-grade iron  ore. In Madhya Pradesh (Bailadila, Jabalpur), Goa (North Goa), Karnataka (Bababudan hills, Chikmagalur, Hospet), Jharkhand (Singhbhum, Naomundi), Andhra Pradesh, Orissa.

Bauxite: Chief ore for producing aluminium. In Orissa (Kalahandi, Koraput, Sundargarh, Bolangir, Sambalpur), Jharkhand (Lohardaga, Gumla), Madhya Pradesh (Jabalpur, Mandla, Shahdol, Kami, Balaghat), Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu.

Gold: Karnataka (Kolar, Hutti, Raichur), Andhra Pradesh (Ramgiri and Yeppamanna goldfields in Chittor and Anantapur districts).

Silver, Zinc & Lead: Rajasthan (Zawar mines near Udaipur), Andhra Pradesh (Mysore, Chitradurg), Karnataka (Kolar mines).

Uranium Resources in India: Jharkhand (Jaduguda), Rajasthan (Ajmer), Andhra Pradesh (Nellore, Nalgonda), Karnataka (Gulbarga).

Oil Refineries: There are 19 refineries in India, 16 in public sector, one in joint sector and two in private sector. Public sector refineries are located at Digboi, Guwahati, Bongaigaon, Barauni, Haldia, Koyali, Mathura, Kochi, Chennai, Vishakhapatnam, Mumbai (2), Panipat, Narimanam, Numanigarh and Tatipaka.

Industries in India

Cotton Textile: Most important industry in terms of employment and  production of export goods. In Maharashtra (Mumbai, Sholapur, Pune, Kolhapur, Satara, Wardha, Hajipur), Gujarat (Ahmedabad, Vododara, Rajkot, Surat, Bhavnagar),Tamil Nadu (Coimbatore-Manchester of South India). Tamil Nadu has the largest number of cotton textile mills in India.

Silk Textile: The location of silk industry is governed by two factors- prevalence of sericulture practices and availability of skilled labour. Karnataka is the leading producer, followed by West Bengal, Bihar, etc.

Woolen Textile: In Punjab (Dhariwai, Amritsar, Ludhiana, Ferozpur), Maharashtra (Mumbai), UP (Kanpur, Mirzapur, Agra, Tanakpur), etc.

Jute: India manufactures the largest quantity of jute goods in the world. Mainly located in West Bengal, followed by Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, UP, MP.

Iron and Steel: Located near the sources of raw materials and fuel  (coal). In Jamshedpur (Jharkhand), Durgapur, Burnpur (W.B.), Bhadrawati (Karnataka), Bokaro (Jharkhand), Rourkela (Orissa), Bhilai (Chhatisgarh), Salem (T.N.), Vishakhapatnam (A.P.).

Aluminium Smelting: Located mainly near the sources of raw materials, means of transport and cheap electricity. In Hirakud, Koraput (Orissa), Renukoot (UP), Korba (MP), Ratnagiri (Maharashtra), Mettur (TN), Alwaye

Copper Smelting: In Khetri, Alwar, Jhunjhunu (Rajasthan), Singhbhum (Jharkhand), Agnigundala (A.P.).

Heavy Machinery: In Ranchi, Vishakapatnam, Durgapur, Tiruchirapalli, Mumbai, Kami.

Machine Tools: It forms the basis for the manufacturing of industrial, defence equipments, automobiles, railway engines and electrical machinery.

In Bangalore, Pinjore (Haryana), Kalamassery (Kerala), Hyderabad, Secunderabad, Srinagar, Ajmer.

Heavy Electrical Equipments: Power generation equipments. In Bhopal, Tiruchirapalli, Jammu, Ramchandrapuram (Hyderabad), Hardwar, Bangalore and Jogdishpur (UP).

Railway Equipments: Locomotives in Indian Railways: In Chittaranjan (WB), Varanasi, Jamshedpur, Bhopal. Coaches: Perambur  (TN), Kapurthala (Punjab), also at Bangalore and Kolkata.

Ship Building India: Hindustan Shipyard at Vishakhapatnam, Cochin Shipyard, Mumuai (Mazgaon Dock) and Kolkata (Garden ReachWorkshop). For Indian Navy, only at Mazgaon.

Cycles India: In Mumbai, Asansol, Sonepat, Delhi, Chennai, Jalandhar and Ludhiana. Tractors in India At Faridabad, Pinjore, Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai.

Fertilizers in India: In Sindri (Bihar), Nangal, Trombay, Gorakhpur, Durgapur, Namrup, Cochin, Rourkela, Neyveli, Varanasi, Vadodara, Vishakhapatinam, Kota and Kanpur.

Aircraft Industry in India: Hindustan Aeronautics India Ltd. was formed by merging two aircraft factories at Bangalore and Kanpur. Four other factories are at Nasik, Hyderabad, Koraput (Orissa), Lucknow.

Rubber Industry in India: Bareilly (UP), Baroda (Gujarat Synthetic Rubber Units, Mumbai, Ahmedabad, Amritsar-Reclaimed Rubber Units.

Nuclear Power Stations in India: Tarapur  Maharastra, Kalpakkam  Tamil Nadu, called Indra Gandhi Nuclear Power Station

Narora  UP, Rawatbhata  Kota, Rajasthan, Kaiga  Karnataka, Kakrapara  Gujarat,

Kundnkulam (TN) Under construction with the assistance of Russia

Major Thermal Power Plants: Neyveli  Tamil Nadu, Korba  Chhatisgarh, Obra  UP, Harduaganj  UP, Rihand  UP, Singrauli  UP, Parichha  UP, Talcher  Orissa, Farakka  West Bengal, Satpura  MP, Ramagundam AP, Vindhyanchal  MP.

Railways in India

Railways

Indian railway system is the largest in Asia and the fourth largest in the world. It is the biggest departmental public undertaking in the country.

  • The first train ran in India between Bombay and Thane, a stretch of 34 km. on April 16 1853.
  • The second train ran between Howrah and Hooghly in 1854.
  • The headquarters of Indian Railway is in New Delhi.
  • The first electric train in India was ‘Deccan Queen’. It was introduced in 1929 between Bombay and Poona.
  • Indian Railways has the second biggest electrified system in the world after Russia.
  • The fastest train in India is the Shatabadi Express whose maximum speed is 140 km/hr.
  • The total route covered is approx 63,000 km.
  • The total number of railway stations in India is 7,100.
  • The longest railway platform in India is at Kharagpur (W.B.).
  • Mumbai is the destination where maximum number of trains in India head for.
  • The longest train route is of ‘Himsagar Express’ from Jammu Tavi to Kanyakumari. It covers a distance of 3,726 km and passes through ten states.
  • The first Metro Rail was introduced in Kolkata (W.Bengal) on October 24, 1984. The two stations connected were Dumdum and Belgachhia.
  • The Indian Railways operate in three different gauges :
  1. Broad Gauge Railway (Distance between rails is 1.67 m).
  2. Metre Gauge Railways (Distance between rails is 1.00 m).
  3. Narrow Gauge Railways India (Distance between rails is 0.762 or 0.610 m).

Railway Zones and Headquarters

 

 Railway Zones                                             Headquarters

  • Central Railway                                           Mumbai VT
  • Eastern  Railway                                          Kolkata
  • Northern Railway                                        New Delhi
  • North Eastern  Railway                               Gorakhpur
  • North-East Frontier Railway                      Maligaon-Guwahati
  • Southern Railway                                        Chennai
  • South Central Railway                                Secunderabad
  • South Eastern  Railway                               Kolkata
  • Western  Railway                                        Mumbai Churchgate
  • East Coast Railway                                       Bhubaneshwar
  • East Central Railway                                   Hajipur
  • North Central Railway                                Allahabad
  • North Western Railway                             Jaipur
  • South Western Railway                             Bangalore (Hubli)
  • West Central Railway                                 Jabalpur
  • South-East Central Railway                        Bilaspur

Railway Manufacturing Units

 

  • Chittaranjan Locomotive Works: Located in Chittaranjan (W.B) and manufactures electric engines.
  • Diesel Locomotive Works : Located in Varanasi (U.P) and manufactures diesel engines.
  • Integral Coach Factory in India : Located in Perambur (TN) and manufactures rail coaches.
  • Wheel and Axle Plant : Locatedat Yalahaka (Bangalore, Karnataka) and manufactures wheels and axles.
  • Diesel Component Works : Locatedat Patiala (Punjab) and manufactures components of diesel engines.
  • Rail Coach Factory in India : Located at Kapurthala (Punjab) and manufactures rail coaches.

Road Transport in India

Road Transport

Road Transport in India India’s road network is one of the largest in the world. The total length of roads is more than 33 lakh km.

  •  For the purpose of maintenance and construction, roads are classified into National Highways, State Highways, District Highways, Village Roads, Border Roads, etc.
  • National highways are maintained by the Central Government, State highways by the respective state government while District highways by the respective District Board. Border roads and International highways are also die responsibility of Central Government.
  • The present length of the National Highways in India is approx. 45,000 km. They constitute only 2% of the total road length and carries nearly 40% of the road traffic.
  • NH – 7 is the longest highway of India.
  • Maharashtra has the maximum length of surfaced roads in India.

Important National Highways

  • NH 1:             New Delhi – Ambala – Jalandhar – Amritsar.
  • NH 2:             Delhi – Mathura – Agara – Kanpur – Allahabad – Varanasi – Kolkata.
  • NH 3:             Agra – Gwalior – Nasik – Mumbai
  • NH 4:             Thane and Chennai via Pune and Belgaun.
  • NH 5:             Kolkata – Chennai
  • NH 6:             Kolkata – Dhule
  • NH 7:             Varanasi – Kanyakumari
  • NH 8:             Delhi – Mumbai (via Jaipur, Baroda and Ahmedabad)
  • NH 9:             Mumbai – Vijaywada
  • NH 10:          Delhi – Fazilka
  • NH 11:          Agra – Bikaner
  • NH 12:          Jabalpur – Jaipur
  • NH 24:          Delhi – Lucknow
  • NH 27:          Allahabad – Varanasi
  • NH 28:          Barauni – Lucknow
  • NH 29:          Gorakhpur – Varanasi
  • NH 56:          Lucknow – Varanasi

Air Transport in India

Air Transport

  •  J.R.D. Tata was the first person to make a solo flight from Mumbai to Karachi in 1931.
  • In 1935, the ‘Tata Air Lines’ started its operation between Mumbai and Thiruvananthapuram and in 1937 between Mumbai and Delhi.
  • In 1953, all the private Airline companies were nationalised and Indian Airlines and Air India came into existence.
  • Air India administers international flights while Indian Airlines caters to the domestic circuit.
  • Indian Airlines is now known by the name of ‘Indian’.
  • Vayudoot Limited started in 1981 as a private air carrier and later on it merged with Indian Airlines.
  • Pawan Hans Limited operates helicopter support services to oil sector, hill stations and remote areas.
  • A number of private airlines also operates is India. They are Jet Airways, Sahara, etc.
  • The Indira Gandhi International Airport and the Chatrapati Shivaji International Airport handle more than half of the air traffic in South Asia. Besides these airports several other domestic airports are located in India.

Water Transport in India

Air Transport

Most efficient, least costly and environment friendly means of transportation. The total length of navigable waterways in Indian comprising rivers, canals, backwaters, etc, is 14,500 km out of which 3700 km is navigable by mechanised boats.

  • The government has recognised the following National Waterways of India:
  • NW 1: Allahabad to Haldia – 1,629 km
  • NW 2: Sadia to Dhubari (on Brahmaputra river) – 819 km
  • NW 3: Kollam to Kottapuram – 186 km
  • NW 4: Kakinada to Marakkanam (Along Godawari and Krishna river) – 1,100 km


Ports in India

  • The Waterways Authority in India divides Indian ports into three categories, major, minor and intermediate.
  • India has about 190 ports in all, with 12 major and the rest intermediate and minor.

 

The 12 Major Ports are:

 Port                                               State

  • Kolkata (including Haldia)          West Bengal
  • Paradip                                          Orissa
  • Vishakhapatnam                          Andhra Pradesh
  • Chennai                                         Tamil Nadu
  • Ennore                                          Tamil Nadu
  • Tuticorin                                       Tamil Nadu
  • Cochin                                           Kerala
  • New Mangalore                           Karnataka
  • Mormugao                                    Goa
  • Jawaharlal Nehru                         Maharashtra
  • Mumbai                                         Maharashtra
  • Kandla                                           Gujarat

All these ports are administered by the respective Port Trusts, except the newly constructed Ennore port which is under the Ennore Port Ltd. Company.

City on Riverbank

City                        River

  • Allahabad              At the confluence of the Ganga and Yamuna
  • Patna                     Ganga
  • Varanasi                Ganga
  • Kanpur                  Ganga
  • Hardwar                Ganga
  • Badrinath              Alaknanda
  • Agra                       Yamuna
  • Delhi                      Yamuna
  • Mathura                Yamuna
  • Ferozpur               Satluj
  • Ludhiana               Satluj
  • Srinagar                 Jhelum
  • Lucknow               Gomti
  • Town                      River
  • Jaunpur                 Gomti
  • Ayodhya                Saryu
  • Bareilly                  Ram Ganga
  • Ahmedabad          Sabarmati
  • Kota                       Chambal
  • Jabalpur                Narmada
  • Panji                       Mandavi
  • Ujjain                     Kshipra
  • Surat                      Tapti
  • Jamshedpur          Swarnarekha
  • Dibrugarh             Brahmaputra
  • Guwahati               Brahmaputra
  • Kolkata                  Hooghly
  • Sambalpur            Mahanadi
  • Cuttack                  Mahanadi
  • Seriranganatnam Cauvery
  • Hyderabad            Musi
  • Nasik                      Godavari
  • Vijayvada               Krishna
  • Curnool                 Tungabhadra
  • Tiruchirapalli        Cauvery

Largest Longest Highest and Smallest in India

  • Longest River                                                   Ganges
  • The Longest Tributary River of India            Yamuna
  • The Longest River of the South                    Godavari
  • Highest Mountain Peak                                  Godwin Austin (K2)
  • Longest River                                                   Ganges
  • Largest Lake (Fresh Water)                           Wular Lake (Kashmir)
  • Highest Dam                                                     Bhakra Dam (Punjab)
  • Largest Mosque                                               Jama Masjid, Delhi
  • Longest Road                                                   Grand Trunk Road
  • State with Longest Coastline                         Gujarat
  • Longest Railway Route                                   From Jammu to Kanyakumari
  • Longest Tunnel                                                Jawahar tunnel (Jammu & Kashmir)
  • Longest National Highway                              NH – 7 which runs from Varanasi to Kanyakumari
  • Longest Dam                                                    Hirakud Dam (Orissa)
  • Longest River Bridge                                      Mahatma Gandhi Setu, Patna
  • Longest River                                                   Ganges
  • Largest Populated City                                   Mumbai (1.60 crore)
  • Largest Museum                                              National Museum, Kolkata
  • Largest Delta                                                    Sunderban Delta, W. Bengal
  • Largest Dome                                                   Gol Gumbaz, Bijapur (Karnataka)
  • Largest Zoo                                                       Zoological Gardens, Alipur, Kolkata
  • Largest Man-made Lake                                 Govind Vallabh Pant Sagar (Rihand Dam)
  • Largest Desert                                                 Thar (Rajasthan)
  • Highest Tower                                                  Pitampura Tower, Delhi
  • Smallest State (Area)                                      Goa
  • Smallest State (Population)                            Sikim
  • Highest Waterfall                                            Gersoppa waterfall (Karnataka)
  • Longest Electric Railway Line                        From Delhi to Kolkata via Patna
  • Densest Populated State                                West Bengal
  • Largest Cave Temple                                      Kailash temple, Ellora (Maharashtra)
  • Largest Animal Fair                                         Sonepur (Bihar)
  • Highest Gateway                                              Buland Darwuza, Fatehpur Sikri (Agra)
  • Biggest Hotel                                                    Oberai-Sheraton (Mumbai)
  • Largest State (Area)                                        Rajasthan
  • Largest State (Population)                             Uttar Pradesh
  • Place of Heaviest Rainfall                               Mausinram (Meghalaya)
  • Largest Corridor                                              Rameshwaram temple corridor (Tamil Nadu)
  • Largest Cantilever Span Bridge                     Howrah Bridge (Kolkata)
  • Largest Forest State                                        Madhya Pradesh
  • Highest Straight Gravity Dam                         Bhakra Dam
  • Longest Railway Platform                               Kharagpur (W. Bengal)
  • Largest Stadium                                               Salt Lake (Yuva Bharti), Kolkata
  • Longest River                                                   Ganges
  • Largest Port                                                      Mumbai
  • Highest Lake                                                     Devatal (Garhwal)
  • Largest Lake (Saline Water)                          Chilka Lake, Orissa
  • Highest Award                                                 Bharat Ratna
  • Highest Gallantry Award                                Paramveer Chakra
  • Largest Gurudwara                                         Golden Temple, Amritsar
  • Deepest River Valley                                      Bhagirathi & Alaknanda
  • State with Longest Coastline of South India    Andhra Pradesh
  • Longest River which forms estuary              Narmada
  • Largest Church                                                Saint Cathedral (Goa)
  • Longest Beach                                                 Marina Beach, Chennai
  • Highest Battle Field                                         Siachin Glacier
  • Highest Airport                                                Leh (Laddakh)
  • Largest River Island                                         Majuli (Brahmaputra River, Assam)
  • Largest Planetarium                                        Birla Planetarium (Kolkata)

Important Monuments

Name                                              Place                                         Built by

  • Ajanta – Ellora Caves                     Aurangabad (Mah.)                Gupta rulers
  • Aram Bagh                                     Agra (UP)                                 Babur
  • Agra Fort                                        Agra (UP)                                 Akbar
  • Akbar’s Mausoleum                     Sikandra (UP)                          Akbar
  • Itmod – ud – daula Fort                 Agra (UP)                                 Noorjahan
  • Anand Bhawan                              Allahabad (UP)                        Motilal Nehru
  • Bada Imambara                             Lucknow (UP)                          Asaf-ud-daula
  • Bharatpur Fort                              Bharatpur (Raj.)                      Raja Surajmal Singh
  • Bibi Ka Maqbara                            Aurangabad (Mah.)                Aurongzeb
  • Char – Minor                                  Hyderabad (AP)                      Quli  Qutub Shah
  • Charar – e – Sharif                         Jammu & Kashmir                   Zainul Abedin
  • Chhota Imambara                         Lucknow (UP)                          Muhammad Ali Shah
  • Dargah Ajmer Sharif                     Ajmer (Raj.)                             Sultan Shyasuddin
  • Dilwara’s Jain Temple                   Mount Abu (Raj.)                    Siddharaja
  • Deewan – e – Khas                         Agra Fort (UP)                         Shahjahan
  • Adhai Din Ka Jhopra                     Ajmer (Raj.)                             Qutubuddin Aibak
  • Elephanfa’s cave                           Mumbai (Mah.)                       Rashtrakuta rulers
  • Fatehpur Sikri                                Agra (UP)                                 Akbar
  • Ferozshah Kotla                            Delhi                                         Ferozshah Tughlaq
  • Golghar                                           Patna (Bih.)                              British Government
  • Gateway of India                           Mumbai (Mah.)                       British Government
  • Hauz Khas                                       Delhi                                         Alauddin Khilji
  • Hawa Mahal                                   Jaipur (Raj.)                              Maharaja Pratap Singh
  • Humayun’s Tomb                          Delhi                                         Hymayun’s wife
  • Jama Masjid                                   Agra (UP)                                 Shahjahan
  • Jama Masjid                                   Delhi                                         Shahjahan
  • Jagannath Temple                         Puri (Ori.)                                 Anantvarmun Ganga
  • Jantar – Mantar                              Delhi                                         Sawai Jai Singh
  • Jaigarh Fort                                    Jaipur (Raj.)                              Sawai Jai Singh
  • Jim Corbett Park                           Nainital (Uttar.)                       Sir Malcom Hqilley
  • Jodhpur Fort                                  Jodhpur (Raj.)                          Rao Jodhoji
  • Kanheri’s Fort                                Mumbai (Mah.)                       Buddhists
  • Khirki Masjid                                  Delhi                                         Ghyasuddin Tughlaq
  • Lai Bagh                                          Bangalore (Kar.)                      Hyder Ali
  • Lakshmi Narayan Temple            Delhi                                         Birla Family
  • Makka Masjid                                Hyderabad (AP)                      Quli Qutub Shah
  • Moti Masjid                                    Agra Fort (UP)                         Shahjahan
  • Moti Masjid                                    Delhi Fort                                 Aurangzeb
  • Nahargarh Fort                              Jaipur (Raj.)                              Sawai Jai Singh
  • Nishat Garden                               Srinagar (J & K)                       Asaf Ali
  • Parana Qila                                    Delhi                                         Shershah Suri
  • Pathar Ki Masjid                            Patna (Bih.)                              Pervez Shah
  • President House                           Delhi                                         British Government
  • Qutub Minor                                 Delhi                                         Qutubuddin Aibak
  • Red Fort                                         Delhi                                         Shahjahan
  • Safdar Jung Tomb                         Delhi                                         Shuja-ud-daula
  • Sabarmati Ashram                        Ahmadabad (Guj.)                  Mahatma Gandhi
  • Shantiniketan                                West Bengal                            Rabindra Nath Tagore
  • Shish Mahal                                   Agra (UP)                                 Shahjahan
  • Shalimar Garden                           Srinagar (J & K)                       Jahangir
  • Shershah’s Tomb                          Sasaram (Bih.)                         Shershah’s son
  • Saint George Fort                         Chennai (TN)                           East India Company
  • Sati Burj                                          Mathura (UP)                          Raja Bhagwan Das
  • Sun Temple                                    Konark (Ori.)                           Narsimhadeva
  • Swarna Mandir (Golden Temple)   Amritsar (Pun.)                       Guru Ramdas
  • Taj Mahal                                        Agra (UP)                                 Shahjahan
  • Vellure Math                                 Kolkata (WB)                           Swami Vivekanand
  • Victoria Memorial                         Kolkata (WB)                           British Government
  • Vishnupad Temple                        Gaya (Bih.)                               Rani Ahiliabai
  • Viiaya Stambha                              Chittorgarh (Raj.)                    Maharana Kumbha

Wildlife Sanctuaries

Name                                                       Place                                   State

  • Chandraprabha Sanctuary                   Varanasi                             Uttar Pradesh
  • Dachigam Sanctuary                              Srinagar                             Jammu & Kashmir
  • Ghana Bird Sanctuary                              Bharatpur                      Rajasthan
  • Ghatprabha Bird Sanctuary                  Belgaum                             Karnataka
  • Jaldapara Sanctuary                              Jalpaiguri                           West Bengal
  • Kutree Game Sanctuary                       Bestar                                 Madhya Pradesh
  • Manas Tigar Sanctuary                          Barpeta                              Assam
  • Melapattu Bird Sanctuary                    Nellor                                 Andra Pradesh
  • Mudumalai Sanctuary                         Nilgiris                            Tamil Nadu
  • Nal Sarovar Bird Sanctury                    Ahmedabad                      Gujarat
  • Palamau Tiger Sanctuary                      Daltonganj                         Bihar
  • Periyar Sanctuary                                  Idduki                                 Kerala
  • Ranganthittoo Bird Sanctuary              Sawai Madhopur              Rajasthan
  • Ranthambhor Tiger Sanctuary             Sawai Madhopur              Rajasthan
  • Similipal Tiger Sanctuary                      Mayurbhanj                      Orissa
  • Sultanpur Lake Bird Sanctuary            Gurgaon                             Haryana
  • Sunderbans Tiger Sanctuary                24-Parganas                      West Bengal