Geography of India
Geographical Location of India
- Lying between latitude 42 N to 37°62 N and from longitude 68°72 E to 97°252 E, the country is divided into almost equal parts by the Tropic of Cancer (passes from Jabalpur in MP).
- The southernmost point in Indian Territory, (in Great Nicobar Island) is the Indira Point (6°452 ), while Kanyakumari, also known as Cape Comorin, is the southernmost point of Indian mainland. The country thus lies wholly in the northern and eastern hemispheres.
- The 82°302 E longitude is taken as the Standard Time Meridian of India, as it passes through the middle of India(from Naini, near Allahabad).
Agriculture in India
Cropping Seasons in India
- Sown in summers between May and July, and harvested after the rains, in September and October.
- Eg: Rice, Jowar, Bajra, Maize, Cotton, Jute, Sugarcane, Tobacco, Groundnut, Pulses, etc.
- Sown at the beginning of winter and harvested before the onset of the summer season, between Feb and April.
- Eg: Wheat, barley, oilseeds, gram, potatoes, etc.
- They are raised between April and June.
- E.g. : Melon, watermelon, cucumber, toris, leafy and other vegetables. Cash Crops of India (Commercial Crops)
- Grown mainly for the market, only a small portion of the product is consumed by the farmers themselves (cotton, sugarcane etc.)
Mineral Resources of India
Coal: West Bengal (Raniganj, Burdwan, Bankura, Purulio, Birbhum, Jalpaigudi, Darjeeling), Jharkhand (Jharia, Giridih, Kharhawadi, Bokaro, Hazaribagh, Kamapura, Rampur, Palamau), Orissa (Rampur, Hindgir, Talcher, Sambal), Madbya Pradesh and Chhatisgarh (Rewa, Pench valley, Umaria, Korba, Sohagpur, Mand river area, Kanha valley, Betul), etc.
Manganese: Orissa, Maharashtra (Nagpur, Bhandara, Ratnagiri), Madhya Pradesh (Balaghat, Chhindawara), Karnataka(Keonjhar, Bonai, Kalahandi), Andhra Pradesh (Kadur, Garibadi
Copper: Madhya Pradesh (Balaghat), Rajasthan (Khetri), Jharkhand (Singhbhum, Masobani, Surda), Karnataka (Chitradurg, Hassan).
Mica: Jharkhand (Hazaribagh, Giridih, Kodarma), Bihar (Goya, Bhagalpur), Andhra Pradesh (Guntur, Vizag, Kurnool), Rajasthan (Bhilwara, Udaipur, Jaipur).
Petroleum: Assam (Digboi, Naharkatiya, Badarpur, Masinpur and Pallharia), Gujarat, (Ankleshwar, Khambat, Kalol), Mumbai High, Bassein (south of Mumbai High), etc. Recently oil has been discovered in Cauvery basin, Krishna and Godavary basin, Khambat basin, etc.
Iron: India possesses Haematite, a very high-grade iron ore. In Madhya Pradesh (Bailadila, Jabalpur), Goa (North Goa), Karnataka (Bababudan hills, Chikmagalur, Hospet), Jharkhand (Singhbhum, Naomundi), Andhra Pradesh, Orissa.
Bauxite: Chief ore for producing aluminium. In Orissa (Kalahandi, Koraput, Sundargarh, Bolangir, Sambalpur), Jharkhand (Lohardaga, Gumla), Madhya Pradesh (Jabalpur, Mandla, Shahdol, Kami, Balaghat), Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu.
Gold: Karnataka (Kolar, Hutti, Raichur), Andhra Pradesh (Ramgiri and Yeppamanna goldfields in Chittor and Anantapur districts).
Silver, Zinc & Lead: Rajasthan (Zawar mines near Udaipur), Andhra Pradesh (Mysore, Chitradurg), Karnataka (Kolar mines).
Uranium Resources in India: Jharkhand (Jaduguda), Rajasthan (Ajmer), Andhra Pradesh (Nellore, Nalgonda), Karnataka (Gulbarga).
Oil Refineries: There are 19 refineries in India, 16 in public sector, one in joint sector and two in private sector. Public sector refineries are located at Digboi, Guwahati, Bongaigaon, Barauni, Haldia, Koyali, Mathura, Kochi, Chennai, Vishakhapatnam, Mumbai (2), Panipat, Narimanam, Numanigarh and Tatipaka.
Industries in India
Cotton Textile: Most important industry in terms of employment and production of export goods. In Maharashtra (Mumbai, Sholapur, Pune, Kolhapur, Satara, Wardha, Hajipur), Gujarat (Ahmedabad, Vododara, Rajkot, Surat, Bhavnagar),Tamil Nadu (Coimbatore-Manchester of South India). Tamil Nadu has the largest number of cotton textile mills in India.
Silk Textile: The location of silk industry is governed by two factors- prevalence of sericulture practices and availability of skilled labour. Karnataka is the leading producer, followed by West Bengal, Bihar, etc.
Woolen Textile: In Punjab (Dhariwai, Amritsar, Ludhiana, Ferozpur), Maharashtra (Mumbai), UP (Kanpur, Mirzapur, Agra, Tanakpur), etc.
Jute: India manufactures the largest quantity of jute goods in the world. Mainly located in West Bengal, followed by Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, UP, MP.
Iron and Steel: Located near the sources of raw materials and fuel (coal). In Jamshedpur (Jharkhand), Durgapur, Burnpur (W.B.), Bhadrawati (Karnataka), Bokaro (Jharkhand), Rourkela (Orissa), Bhilai (Chhatisgarh), Salem (T.N.), Vishakhapatnam (A.P.).
Aluminium Smelting: Located mainly near the sources of raw materials, means of transport and cheap electricity. In Hirakud, Koraput (Orissa), Renukoot (UP), Korba (MP), Ratnagiri (Maharashtra), Mettur (TN), Alwaye
Copper Smelting: In Khetri, Alwar, Jhunjhunu (Rajasthan), Singhbhum (Jharkhand), Agnigundala (A.P.).
Heavy Machinery: In Ranchi, Vishakapatnam, Durgapur, Tiruchirapalli, Mumbai, Kami.
Machine Tools: It forms the basis for the manufacturing of industrial, defence equipments, automobiles, railway engines and electrical machinery.
In Bangalore, Pinjore (Haryana), Kalamassery (Kerala), Hyderabad, Secunderabad, Srinagar, Ajmer.
Heavy Electrical Equipments: Power generation equipments. In Bhopal, Tiruchirapalli, Jammu, Ramchandrapuram (Hyderabad), Hardwar, Bangalore and Jogdishpur (UP).
Railway Equipments: Locomotives in Indian Railways: In Chittaranjan (WB), Varanasi, Jamshedpur, Bhopal. Coaches: Perambur (TN), Kapurthala (Punjab), also at Bangalore and Kolkata.
Ship Building India: Hindustan Shipyard at Vishakhapatnam, Cochin Shipyard, Mumuai (Mazgaon Dock) and Kolkata (Garden ReachWorkshop). For Indian Navy, only at Mazgaon.
Cycles India: In Mumbai, Asansol, Sonepat, Delhi, Chennai, Jalandhar and Ludhiana. Tractors in India At Faridabad, Pinjore, Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai.
Fertilizers in India: In Sindri (Bihar), Nangal, Trombay, Gorakhpur, Durgapur, Namrup, Cochin, Rourkela, Neyveli, Varanasi, Vadodara, Vishakhapatinam, Kota and Kanpur.
Aircraft Industry in India: Hindustan Aeronautics India Ltd. was formed by merging two aircraft factories at Bangalore and Kanpur. Four other factories are at Nasik, Hyderabad, Koraput (Orissa), Lucknow.
Rubber Industry in India: Bareilly (UP), Baroda (Gujarat Synthetic Rubber Units, Mumbai, Ahmedabad, Amritsar-Reclaimed Rubber Units.
Nuclear Power Stations in India: Tarapur Maharastra, Kalpakkam Tamil Nadu, called Indra Gandhi Nuclear Power Station
Narora UP, Rawatbhata Kota, Rajasthan, Kaiga Karnataka, Kakrapara Gujarat,
Kundnkulam (TN) Under construction with the assistance of Russia
Major Thermal Power Plants: Neyveli Tamil Nadu, Korba Chhatisgarh, Obra UP, Harduaganj UP, Rihand UP, Singrauli UP, Parichha UP, Talcher Orissa, Farakka West Bengal, Satpura MP, Ramagundam AP, Vindhyanchal MP.
Railways in India
Indian railway system is the largest in Asia and the fourth largest in the world. It is the biggest departmental public undertaking in the country.
- The first train ran in India between Bombay and Thane, a stretch of 34 km. on April 16 1853.
- The second train ran between Howrah and Hooghly in 1854.
- The headquarters of Indian Railway is in New Delhi.
- The first electric train in India was ‘Deccan Queen’. It was introduced in 1929 between Bombay and Poona.
- Indian Railways has the second biggest electrified system in the world after Russia.
- The fastest train in India is the Shatabadi Express whose maximum speed is 140 km/hr.
- The total route covered is approx 63,000 km.
- The total number of railway stations in India is 7,100.
- The longest railway platform in India is at Kharagpur (W.B.).
- Mumbai is the destination where maximum number of trains in India head for.
- The longest train route is of ‘Himsagar Express’ from Jammu Tavi to Kanyakumari. It covers a distance of 3,726 km and passes through ten states.
- The first Metro Rail was introduced in Kolkata (W.Bengal) on October 24, 1984. The two stations connected were Dumdum and Belgachhia.
- The Indian Railways operate in three different gauges :
- Broad Gauge Railway (Distance between rails is 1.67 m).
- Metre Gauge Railways (Distance between rails is 1.00 m).
- Narrow Gauge Railways India (Distance between rails is 0.762 or 0.610 m).
Railway Zones and Headquarters
Railway Zones Headquarters
- Central Railway Mumbai VT
- Eastern Railway Kolkata
- Northern Railway New Delhi
- North Eastern Railway Gorakhpur
- North-East Frontier Railway Maligaon-Guwahati
- Southern Railway Chennai
- South Central Railway Secunderabad
- South Eastern Railway Kolkata
- Western Railway Mumbai Churchgate
- East Coast Railway Bhubaneshwar
- East Central Railway Hajipur
- North Central Railway Allahabad
- North Western Railway Jaipur
- South Western Railway Bangalore (Hubli)
- West Central Railway Jabalpur
- South-East Central Railway Bilaspur
Railway Manufacturing Units
- Chittaranjan Locomotive Works: Located in Chittaranjan (W.B) and manufactures electric engines.
- Diesel Locomotive Works : Located in Varanasi (U.P) and manufactures diesel engines.
- Integral Coach Factory in India : Located in Perambur (TN) and manufactures rail coaches.
- Wheel and Axle Plant : Locatedat Yalahaka (Bangalore, Karnataka) and manufactures wheels and axles.
- Diesel Component Works : Locatedat Patiala (Punjab) and manufactures components of diesel engines.
- Rail Coach Factory in India : Located at Kapurthala (Punjab) and manufactures rail coaches.
Road Transport in India
Road Transport in India India’s road network is one of the largest in the world. The total length of roads is more than 33 lakh km.
- For the purpose of maintenance and construction, roads are classified into National Highways, State Highways, District Highways, Village Roads, Border Roads, etc.
- National highways are maintained by the Central Government, State highways by the respective state government while District highways by the respective District Board. Border roads and International highways are also die responsibility of Central Government.
- The present length of the National Highways in India is approx. 45,000 km. They constitute only 2% of the total road length and carries nearly 40% of the road traffic.
- NH – 7 is the longest highway of India.
- Maharashtra has the maximum length of surfaced roads in India.
Important National Highways
- NH 1: New Delhi – Ambala – Jalandhar – Amritsar.
- NH 2: Delhi – Mathura – Agara – Kanpur – Allahabad – Varanasi – Kolkata.
- NH 3: Agra – Gwalior – Nasik – Mumbai
- NH 4: Thane and Chennai via Pune and Belgaun.
- NH 5: Kolkata – Chennai
- NH 6: Kolkata – Dhule
- NH 7: Varanasi – Kanyakumari
- NH 8: Delhi – Mumbai (via Jaipur, Baroda and Ahmedabad)
- NH 9: Mumbai – Vijaywada
- NH 10: Delhi – Fazilka
- NH 11: Agra – Bikaner
- NH 12: Jabalpur – Jaipur
- NH 24: Delhi – Lucknow
- NH 27: Allahabad – Varanasi
- NH 28: Barauni – Lucknow
- NH 29: Gorakhpur – Varanasi
- NH 56: Lucknow – Varanasi
Air Transport in India
- J.R.D. Tata was the first person to make a solo flight from Mumbai to Karachi in 1931.
- In 1935, the ‘Tata Air Lines’ started its operation between Mumbai and Thiruvananthapuram and in 1937 between Mumbai and Delhi.
- In 1953, all the private Airline companies were nationalised and Indian Airlines and Air India came into existence.
- Air India administers international flights while Indian Airlines caters to the domestic circuit.
- Indian Airlines is now known by the name of ‘Indian’.
- Vayudoot Limited started in 1981 as a private air carrier and later on it merged with Indian Airlines.
- Pawan Hans Limited operates helicopter support services to oil sector, hill stations and remote areas.
- A number of private airlines also operates is India. They are Jet Airways, Sahara, etc.
- The Indira Gandhi International Airport and the Chatrapati Shivaji International Airport handle more than half of the air traffic in South Asia. Besides these airports several other domestic airports are located in India.
Water Transport in India
Most efficient, least costly and environment friendly means of transportation. The total length of navigable waterways in Indian comprising rivers, canals, backwaters, etc, is 14,500 km out of which 3700 km is navigable by mechanised boats.
- The government has recognised the following National Waterways of India:
- NW 1: Allahabad to Haldia – 1,629 km
- NW 2: Sadia to Dhubari (on Brahmaputra river) – 819 km
- NW 3: Kollam to Kottapuram – 186 km
- NW 4: Kakinada to Marakkanam (Along Godawari and Krishna river) – 1,100 km
Ports in India
- The Waterways Authority in India divides Indian ports into three categories, major, minor and intermediate.
- India has about 190 ports in all, with 12 major and the rest intermediate and minor.
The 12 Major Ports are:
- Kolkata (including Haldia) West Bengal
- Paradip Orissa
- Vishakhapatnam Andhra Pradesh
- Chennai Tamil Nadu
- Ennore Tamil Nadu
- Tuticorin Tamil Nadu
- Cochin Kerala
- New Mangalore Karnataka
- Mormugao Goa
- Jawaharlal Nehru Maharashtra
- Mumbai Maharashtra
- Kandla Gujarat
All these ports are administered by the respective Port Trusts, except the newly constructed Ennore port which is under the Ennore Port Ltd. Company.
City on Riverbank
- Allahabad At the confluence of the Ganga and Yamuna
- Patna Ganga
- Varanasi Ganga
- Kanpur Ganga
- Hardwar Ganga
- Badrinath Alaknanda
- Agra Yamuna
- Delhi Yamuna
- Mathura Yamuna
- Ferozpur Satluj
- Ludhiana Satluj
- Srinagar Jhelum
- Lucknow Gomti
- Town River
- Jaunpur Gomti
- Ayodhya Saryu
- Bareilly Ram Ganga
- Ahmedabad Sabarmati
- Kota Chambal
- Jabalpur Narmada
- Panji Mandavi
- Ujjain Kshipra
- Surat Tapti
- Jamshedpur Swarnarekha
- Dibrugarh Brahmaputra
- Guwahati Brahmaputra
- Kolkata Hooghly
- Sambalpur Mahanadi
- Cuttack Mahanadi
- Seriranganatnam Cauvery
- Hyderabad Musi
- Nasik Godavari
- Vijayvada Krishna
- Curnool Tungabhadra
- Tiruchirapalli Cauvery
Largest Longest Highest and Smallest in India
- Longest River Ganges
- The Longest Tributary River of India Yamuna
- The Longest River of the South Godavari
- Highest Mountain Peak Godwin Austin (K2)
- Longest River Ganges
- Largest Lake (Fresh Water) Wular Lake (Kashmir)
- Highest Dam Bhakra Dam (Punjab)
- Largest Mosque Jama Masjid, Delhi
- Longest Road Grand Trunk Road
- State with Longest Coastline Gujarat
- Longest Railway Route From Jammu to Kanyakumari
- Longest Tunnel Jawahar tunnel (Jammu & Kashmir)
- Longest National Highway NH – 7 which runs from Varanasi to Kanyakumari
- Longest Dam Hirakud Dam (Orissa)
- Longest River Bridge Mahatma Gandhi Setu, Patna
- Longest River Ganges
- Largest Populated City Mumbai (1.60 crore)
- Largest Museum National Museum, Kolkata
- Largest Delta Sunderban Delta, W. Bengal
- Largest Dome Gol Gumbaz, Bijapur (Karnataka)
- Largest Zoo Zoological Gardens, Alipur, Kolkata
- Largest Man-made Lake Govind Vallabh Pant Sagar (Rihand Dam)
- Largest Desert Thar (Rajasthan)
- Highest Tower Pitampura Tower, Delhi
- Smallest State (Area) Goa
- Smallest State (Population) Sikim
- Highest Waterfall Gersoppa waterfall (Karnataka)
- Longest Electric Railway Line From Delhi to Kolkata via Patna
- Densest Populated State West Bengal
- Largest Cave Temple Kailash temple, Ellora (Maharashtra)
- Largest Animal Fair Sonepur (Bihar)
- Highest Gateway Buland Darwuza, Fatehpur Sikri (Agra)
- Biggest Hotel Oberai-Sheraton (Mumbai)
- Largest State (Area) Rajasthan
- Largest State (Population) Uttar Pradesh
- Place of Heaviest Rainfall Mausinram (Meghalaya)
- Largest Corridor Rameshwaram temple corridor (Tamil Nadu)
- Largest Cantilever Span Bridge Howrah Bridge (Kolkata)
- Largest Forest State Madhya Pradesh
- Highest Straight Gravity Dam Bhakra Dam
- Longest Railway Platform Kharagpur (W. Bengal)
- Largest Stadium Salt Lake (Yuva Bharti), Kolkata
- Longest River Ganges
- Largest Port Mumbai
- Highest Lake Devatal (Garhwal)
- Largest Lake (Saline Water) Chilka Lake, Orissa
- Highest Award Bharat Ratna
- Highest Gallantry Award Paramveer Chakra
- Largest Gurudwara Golden Temple, Amritsar
- Deepest River Valley Bhagirathi & Alaknanda
- State with Longest Coastline of South India Andhra Pradesh
- Longest River which forms estuary Narmada
- Largest Church Saint Cathedral (Goa)
- Longest Beach Marina Beach, Chennai
- Highest Battle Field Siachin Glacier
- Highest Airport Leh (Laddakh)
- Largest River Island Majuli (Brahmaputra River, Assam)
- Largest Planetarium Birla Planetarium (Kolkata)
Name Place Built by
- Ajanta – Ellora Caves Aurangabad (Mah.) Gupta rulers
- Aram Bagh Agra (UP) Babur
- Agra Fort Agra (UP) Akbar
- Akbar’s Mausoleum Sikandra (UP) Akbar
- Itmod – ud – daula Fort Agra (UP) Noorjahan
- Anand Bhawan Allahabad (UP) Motilal Nehru
- Bada Imambara Lucknow (UP) Asaf-ud-daula
- Bharatpur Fort Bharatpur (Raj.) Raja Surajmal Singh
- Bibi Ka Maqbara Aurangabad (Mah.) Aurongzeb
- Char – Minor Hyderabad (AP) Quli Qutub Shah
- Charar – e – Sharif Jammu & Kashmir Zainul Abedin
- Chhota Imambara Lucknow (UP) Muhammad Ali Shah
- Dargah Ajmer Sharif Ajmer (Raj.) Sultan Shyasuddin
- Dilwara’s Jain Temple Mount Abu (Raj.) Siddharaja
- Deewan – e – Khas Agra Fort (UP) Shahjahan
- Adhai Din Ka Jhopra Ajmer (Raj.) Qutubuddin Aibak
- Elephanfa’s cave Mumbai (Mah.) Rashtrakuta rulers
- Fatehpur Sikri Agra (UP) Akbar
- Ferozshah Kotla Delhi Ferozshah Tughlaq
- Golghar Patna (Bih.) British Government
- Gateway of India Mumbai (Mah.) British Government
- Hauz Khas Delhi Alauddin Khilji
- Hawa Mahal Jaipur (Raj.) Maharaja Pratap Singh
- Humayun’s Tomb Delhi Hymayun’s wife
- Jama Masjid Agra (UP) Shahjahan
- Jama Masjid Delhi Shahjahan
- Jagannath Temple Puri (Ori.) Anantvarmun Ganga
- Jantar – Mantar Delhi Sawai Jai Singh
- Jaigarh Fort Jaipur (Raj.) Sawai Jai Singh
- Jim Corbett Park Nainital (Uttar.) Sir Malcom Hqilley
- Jodhpur Fort Jodhpur (Raj.) Rao Jodhoji
- Kanheri’s Fort Mumbai (Mah.) Buddhists
- Khirki Masjid Delhi Ghyasuddin Tughlaq
- Lai Bagh Bangalore (Kar.) Hyder Ali
- Lakshmi Narayan Temple Delhi Birla Family
- Makka Masjid Hyderabad (AP) Quli Qutub Shah
- Moti Masjid Agra Fort (UP) Shahjahan
- Moti Masjid Delhi Fort Aurangzeb
- Nahargarh Fort Jaipur (Raj.) Sawai Jai Singh
- Nishat Garden Srinagar (J & K) Asaf Ali
- Parana Qila Delhi Shershah Suri
- Pathar Ki Masjid Patna (Bih.) Pervez Shah
- President House Delhi British Government
- Qutub Minor Delhi Qutubuddin Aibak
- Red Fort Delhi Shahjahan
- Safdar Jung Tomb Delhi Shuja-ud-daula
- Sabarmati Ashram Ahmadabad (Guj.) Mahatma Gandhi
- Shantiniketan West Bengal Rabindra Nath Tagore
- Shish Mahal Agra (UP) Shahjahan
- Shalimar Garden Srinagar (J & K) Jahangir
- Shershah’s Tomb Sasaram (Bih.) Shershah’s son
- Saint George Fort Chennai (TN) East India Company
- Sati Burj Mathura (UP) Raja Bhagwan Das
- Sun Temple Konark (Ori.) Narsimhadeva
- Swarna Mandir (Golden Temple) Amritsar (Pun.) Guru Ramdas
- Taj Mahal Agra (UP) Shahjahan
- Vellure Math Kolkata (WB) Swami Vivekanand
- Victoria Memorial Kolkata (WB) British Government
- Vishnupad Temple Gaya (Bih.) Rani Ahiliabai
- Viiaya Stambha Chittorgarh (Raj.) Maharana Kumbha
Name Place State
- Chandraprabha Sanctuary Varanasi Uttar Pradesh
- Dachigam Sanctuary Srinagar Jammu & Kashmir
- Ghana Bird Sanctuary Bharatpur Rajasthan
- Ghatprabha Bird Sanctuary Belgaum Karnataka
- Jaldapara Sanctuary Jalpaiguri West Bengal
- Kutree Game Sanctuary Bestar Madhya Pradesh
- Manas Tigar Sanctuary Barpeta Assam
- Melapattu Bird Sanctuary Nellor Andra Pradesh
- Mudumalai Sanctuary Nilgiris Tamil Nadu
- Nal Sarovar Bird Sanctury Ahmedabad Gujarat
- Palamau Tiger Sanctuary Daltonganj Bihar
- Periyar Sanctuary Idduki Kerala
- Ranganthittoo Bird Sanctuary Sawai Madhopur Rajasthan
- Ranthambhor Tiger Sanctuary Sawai Madhopur Rajasthan
- Similipal Tiger Sanctuary Mayurbhanj Orissa
- Sultanpur Lake Bird Sanctuary Gurgaon Haryana
- Sunderbans Tiger Sanctuary 24-Parganas West Bengal