General Science and Technology


Science (from Latin scientia, meaning “knowledge”) is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe. In an older and closely related meaning, “science” also refers to a body of knowledge itself, of the type that can be rationally explained and reliably applied. A practitioner of science is known as a scientist.
Since classical antiquity, science as a type of knowledge has been closely linked to philosophy. In the early modern period the words “science” and “philosophy of nature” were sometimes used interchangeably. By the 17th century, natural philosophy (which is today called “natural science”) was considered a separate branch of philosophy.
In modern usage, “science” most often refers to a way of pursuing knowledge, not only the knowledge itself. It is also often restricted to those branches of study that seek to explain the phenomena of the material universe. In the 17th and 18th centuries scientists increasingly sought to formulate knowledge in terms of laws of nature such as Newton’s laws of motion. And over the course of the 19th century, the word “science” became increasingly associated with the scientific method itself, as a disciplined way to study the natural world, including physics, chemistry, geology and biology. It is in the 19th century also that the term scientist was created by the naturalist-theologian William Whewell to distinguish those who sought knowledge on nature from those who sought other types of knowledge.
However, “science” has also continued to be used in a broad sense denoting reliable, teachable knowledge about a topic, as in modern terms like library science or computer science. This is also reflected in the names of some areas of academic study such as “social science” or “political science”.

List of Scientific Instruments

Instrument                 Use

  • Altimeter                     It measures altitudes and is used in aircrafts
  • Ammeter                     It measures strength of electric current (in amperes)
  • Anemometer              It measures force and velocity of wind.
  • Audiometer                It measures intensity of sound.
  • Audio – Phone            It is used for improving imperfect sense of hearing.
  • Barograph                   It is used for continuous recording of atmospheric pressure.
  • Barometer                  It measures atmospheric pressure.
  • Binocular                     It is used to view distant objects.
  • Bolometer                   It measures heat radiation.
  • Calorimeter                It measures quantity of heat.
  • Carburetor                  It is used in an internal combustion engine for charging air with petrol vapour.
  • Cardiogram                 It traces movements of the heart, recorded on a cardiograph.
  • Chronometer             It determines longitude of a place kept onboard ship.
  • Cinematography        It is an instrument used in cinema making to throw on screen and enlarged image of photograph.
  • Crescograph               It measures the growth in plants.
  • Cyclotron                    A charged particle accelerator which can accelerate charged particles to high energies.
  • Dynamo                       It converts mechanical energy into electrical energy.
  • Dynamometer            It measures electrical power.
  • Electrometer              It measures electricity.
  • Electroscope              It detects presence of an electric charge.
  • Endoscope                  It examines internal parts of the body.
  • Eudiometer                 Glass tube for measuring volume changes in chemical reactions between gases.
  • Fathometer                 It measures the depth of the ocean.
  • Galvanometer            It measures the electric current of low magnitude.
  • Hydrometer                It measures the specific gravity of liquids.
  • Hygrometer                It measures humidity in air.
  • Hydrophone               It measures sound under water.
  • Kymograph                 It graphically records physiological movements (Blood pressure and heart beat).
  • Lactometer                 It determines the purity of milk.
  • Manometer                It measures the pressure of gases.
  • Mariner’s Compass    It is an instrument used by the sailors to determine the direction.
  • Microphone               It converts the sound waves into electrical vibrations and to magnify the sound.
  • Microscope                It is used to obtain magnified view of small objects.
  • Odometer                   An instrument by which the distance covered by wheeled vehicles is measured.
  • Phonograph                An instrument for producing sound.
  • Photometer                The instrument compares the luminous intensity of the source of light.
  • Periscope                    It is used to view objects above sea level (used in sub – marines).
  • Potentiometer           It is used for comparing electromotive force of cells.
  • Pyrometer                  It measures very high temperature.
  • Radar                           It is used for detecting the direction and range of an approaching plane by means of radio microwaves.
  • Rain Gauge                  An apparatus for recording rainfall at a particular place.
  • Radiometer                 It measures the emission of radiant energy.
  • Refractometer           It measures refractive index.
  • Saccharimeter            It measures the amount of sugar in the solution.
  • Seismograph               It measures the intensity of earthquake shocks.
  • Salinometer                It determines salinity of solution.
  • Sextant                        This is used by navigators to find the latitude of a place by measuring the elevation above the horizon of the sun or                                           another star.
  • Spectrometer             It is an instrument for measuring the energy distribution of a particular type of radiation.
  • Speedometer             It is an instrument placed in a vehicle to record its speed.
  • Sphygmomanometer           It measures blood pressure.
  • Spherometer              It measures the curvatures of surfaces.
  • Stereoscope               It is used to view two dimensional pictures.
  • Stethoscope               An instrument which is used by the doctors to hear and analyze heart and lung sounds.
  • Stroboscope               It is used to view rapidly moving objects.
  • Tachometer                An instrument used in measuring speeds of aero – planes and motor boots.
  • Teleprinter                 This instrument receives and sends typed messages from one place to another.
  • Telescope                   It views distant objects in space.
  • Theodolite                  It measures horizontal and vertical angles.
  • Thermometer             This instrument is used for the measurement of temperatures.
  • Thermostat                 It regulates the temperature at o particular point.
  • Viscometer                 It measures the viscosity of liquids.
  • Voltmeter                    It measures the electric potential difference between two points.

Scientific Measures

  • Ampere : Unit of electric current. It is approximately equal to the flow of 6 x 1018 electrons per second.
  • Atomic Weight :  The weight of an atom of hydrogen is taken as the standard; the respective weights of the atoms of all other substances are expressed in terms of it. So when it is stated that the atomic weight of iron is 56, it is meant that the atom of iron is 56 times as heavy as the atom of hydrogen.
  • Angstrom :  The unit of wavelength of light is Angstrom. 1 Angstrom = 10 – 8 cm. There is a bigger unit for measuring the wavelength of infrared light; it is called a milli – micron and is equal to 10 – 7 cm. Micron = 10 – 4 cm, is a still bigger unit. Bar is the unit of atmospheric pressure; one bar is equal to a pressure of 106 dynes per sq cm.
  • Calory :    Calory is the unit of heat. It is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature or one gram of water through 1 C.
  • Horse Power : The practical unit of power – the power of an agent which can work at the rate of 550 foot – pounds per second or 33,000 foot – pounds per minute. 1 HP = 746 watts.
  • Joule :  Joule is the unit of work or energy. It is equal to 107 ergs. It is the energy consumed in one second in an electrical circuit through which a current energy of one ampere is flowing against a potential difference of one volt.
  • Knot : Knot is a measure to know the speed of a ship.
  • Light Year :   A light year is the distance light travels in one mean solar year, at speed of 1,86,000 miles per second. It is equal to 5,880,000,000,000 miles. It is used as a unit for measuring stellar distances.
  • Nautical Mile :   A unit of distance used in navigation – one minute of longitude measured along the Equator. A Nautical Mile is approximately equal to 6, 080 feet.
  • Pressure :    The pressure is expressed in pounds weight per sq cm. The pressure of the atmosphere is expressed in millibars. One millibar = 1 dyne per sq cm. If the pressure are very high, they are expressed in multiples of atmospheric pressure. 1 atmosphere is a pressure exerted by a column of mercury 76 cm high at sea level and at a latitude of 45 .
  • Quintal : Metric measure of weight; 100 kilograms = 1 quintal.
  • Volt :  The unit of potential difference. It is that much potential difference which when applied to the ends of an electrical conductor of resistance one ohm, the amount of energy consumed in the circuit in one second is one Joule ( = 107 ergs ).
  • Watt : Unit of power – the rate of work done in joules per second; the energy expended per second by an unvarying electric current of 1 ampere.

Fundamental Physics Units

Fundamental Physics Units

Unit                              Quantity

  • Metre                          Length
  • Kilogram                      Mass
  • Second                        Time
  • Kelvin                           Temperature
  • Ampere                       Electric Current
  • Candela                       Luminous Intensity
  • Mole                            Amount of Substance

Supplementary Units

Unit                              Quantity

  • Radian                          Plane Angle
  • Steradian                     Solid Angle

Important Units of Long Distances

  • Light year = Distance traveled by light in vacuum in one year = 9.46 x 1015 m
  • 1 Parsec (Parallactic second) is the distance corresponding to a parallex of one second of arc, 1 Parsec = 3.08 x 1016 m = 3.26 light years.

Some Important Units of Short Distances

  • 1 micron (1 µ) = 10-4 cm, 10-6 m
  • 1 Angstrom (1 Å) = 10 -8 cm, 10 -10 m
  • 1 Fermi (1F) = 10 -13 cm, 10 -15 m
  • 1 x U = 10 -11 cm, 10 -13 m


Units of Measurement

Quantity                           Unit (SI)

  • Length                                            Metre
  • Time                                                Second
  • Mass                                                Kilogram
  • Area                                                Square metre
  • Volume                                           Cubic metre
  • Velocity                                          Metre / second
  • Acceleration                                  Metre / Second Square
  • Density                                           Kilogram / Metre Cube
  • Momentum                                    Kilogram Metre / Second
  • Work                                               Joule
  • Energy                                            Joule
  • Force                                              Newton
  • Pressure                                         Pascal or Newton / Square Metre
  • Frequency                                     Hertz
  • Power                                             Watt
  • Weight                                            Newton or Kilogram
  • Impulse                                           Newton – Second
  • Angular velocity                            Radian / Second
  • Viscosity                                         Poise
  • Surface tension                             Newton / Square Metre
  • Heat                                                Joule
  • Temperature                                 Kelvin
  • Absolute temperature                 Kelvin
  • Resistance                                      Ohm
  • Electric current                             Ampere
  • Electromotive force                     Volt
  • Electrical conductivity                 Ohm / Metre
  • Electric Energy                              Kilo Watt hour
  • Electric Power                               Kilo Watt or Watt
  • Magnetic Intensity                        Orsted
  • Charge                                            Coulomb
  • Magnetic induction                      Gauss
  • Luminous flux                                Candela
  • Intensity of Sound                        Decibel
  • Power of lens                                Dioptre
  • Depth of Sea                                  Fathom

Alloys in Chemistry

An alloy is a mixture of two or more metals.

Name               Composition                                               Use

  • Brass                 Cu (60 to 80%), Zn (40 to 20%)               For making household utensils
  • Bronze              Cu (75 to 90%), Sn (25 to 10%)               For making coins, idols, utensils
  • German Silver Cu (60%), Zn (25%), Ni (15%)                   For making utensils
  • Magnelium      Mg (5%), Al (95%)                                      For making aircraft frame
  • Rolled Gold      Cu (90%), Ni (10%)                                     For making cheap ornaments
  • Monel metal    Cu (70%), Ni (30%)                                     For making alkali resistant containers
  • Bell metal         Cu (80%), Sn (20%)                                    For making bells
  • Gun metal        Cu (85%), Zn (10%), Sn (5%)                     Used for engineering purposes
  • Solder               Sn (50-75%), Pb (50-25%)                        Soldering of metals
  • Duralium          Al (95%), Cu (4%), Mg (0.5%), Mn (0.5%)   In aircraft manufacturing
  • Steel                 Fe (98%), C (2%)                                         For making nails, screws, bridges
  • Stainless Steel Fe (82%) Cr, Ni (18%)                                For making cooking utensils, knives

Common and Chemicals Names

Common Name   Chemical Name                       Chemical Formula

  • Dry Ice                    Solid Carbon dioxide                                CO2
  • Slaked Lime            Calcium Hydroxide                                   Ca (OH)2
  • Bleaching Powder  Calcium Oxychloride                                CaOCl2
  • Nausadar                Ammonium Chloride                               NH4Cl
  • Caustic Soda           Sodium Hydroxide                                 NaOH
  • Rock Salt                Sodium Chloride                                         NaCl
  • Caustic Potash        Potassium Hydroxide                               KOH
  • Potash Alum           Potassium Aluminium Sulphate             K2SO4 . Al2(SO4)3 . 24H2O
  • Epsom                    Magnesium Sulphate                              MgSO4 . 7H2O
  • Quick Lime             Calcium Oxide                                         CaO
  • Plaster of Paris       Calcium Sulphate                                  (CaSO4) ½ H2O
  • Gypsum                  Calcium Sulphate                                      CaSO4 . 2H2O
  • Green Vitriol          Ferrous Sulphate                                    FeSO4 . 7H2O
  • Mohr’s Salt             Ammonium Ferrous Sulphate                 FeSO4(NH4)2SO4 . 6H2O
  • Blue Vitriol             Copper Sulphate                                     CuSO4 . 5H2O
  • White Vitriol          Zinc Sulphate                                           ZnSO4 . 7H2O
  • Marsh Gas              Methane                                                  CH4
  • Vinegar                   Acetic Acid                                               CH3COOH
  • Potash Ash             Potassium Carbonate                              K2CO3
  • Hypo                       Sodium Thiosulphate                              Na2S2O3 . 5H2O
  • Baking Powder       Sodium Bicarbonate                                NaHCO3
  • Washing Soda        Sodium Carbonate                                   Na2CO3 . 10H2O
  • Magnesia               Magnesium Oxide                                      MgO
  • Chalk (Marble)       Calcium Carbonate                                  CaCO3
  • Lunar Caustic          Silver Nitrate                                           AgNO3
  • Laughing Gas         Nitrous Oxide                                          N2O
  • Chloroform             Tricholoro Methane                                 CHCl3
  • Vermelium             Mercuric Sulphide                                   HgS
  • Borax                      Borax                                                       Na2B4O7 . 10H2O
  • Alcohol                   Ethyl Alcohol                                            C2H5OH
  • Sugar                      Sucrose                                                    C12H22O11
  • Heavy Water          Duterium Oxide                              D2O
  • Globar’s Salt          Sodium Sulphate                               Na2SO2 . 10H2O
  • T.N.T                       Tri Nitro – toluene                                C6H2CH3(NO2)3
  • Calomel                  Mercurous Chloride                                 HgCl
  • Sand                       Silicon Oxide                                            SiO2

Elements Symbols and Atomic Numbers

Name                    Symbol        Atomic No       Name     Symbol    Atomic No

Hydrogen                      H                 1                     Iron (Ferum)                     Fe           26

Helium                          He               2                     Cobalt                               Co           27

Lithium                         Li                3                     Nickel                                Ni           28

Berylium                       Be               4                     Copper (Cuprum)              Cu           29

Boron                            B                 5                     Zinc                                   Zn           30

Carbon                          C                 6                     Germenium                      Ge          32

Nitrogen                       N                7                     Bromine                            Br           35

Oxygen                          O                8                     Krypton                             Kr            36

Flourine                        F                 9                     Zirconium                         Zr            40

Neon                             Ne              10                   Silver                                 Ag           47

Sodium (Natrium)        Na              11                   Tin (Stannum)                  Sn           50

Magnesium                  Mg              12                   Antimony (Stabnium)       Sb           51

Aluminium                    Al                13                   Iodine                                I              53

Silicon                           Si                14                   Barium                              Ba           56

Phosphorous                 P                 15                   Gold (Aurum)                   Au           79

Sulphur                         S                 16                   Mercury (Hydragerm)       Hg           80

Chlorine                        CI                17                   Lead (Plumbum)               Pb           82

Argon                            Ar                18                  Bismuth                                 Bi           83

Potassium (Kalium)      K                 19                   Radium                             Ra           88

Calcium                         Ca               20                   Thorium                            Th           90

Titanium                       Ti                22                   Uranium                           U            92

Vanadium                     V                 23                   Plutonium                         Pu           94

Chromium                     Cr                24                   Curium                              Cm          96

Manganese                   Mn              25

Ores of Metals

Names of the Elements   Ores Chemical Formulae

Aluminium (Al)  

(a) Bauxite                                   Al2O3 . 2H2O

(b) Corundum                               Al2O3

(c) Kryolite                                   Na3AlF6

Iron (Fe)

(a) Haematite                              Fe2O3

(b) Magnetite                              Fe3O4

(c) Iron Pyrite                               FeS2

(d) Siderite                                   FeCO3

Copper (Cu)                  

(a) Copper Pyrite                          CuFeS2

(b) Copper Glance                        Cu2S

(c) Malachite                               2CuCO3 . Cu(OH)2

Zinc (Zn)                      

(a) Zinc Blende                            ZnS

(b) Calamine                                ZnCO3

Sodium (Na)                

(a) Rock Salt                                NaCl

(b) Sodium Carbonate                 Na2CO3

Potassium (K)              

(a) Karnalite                                 KCI MgCl . 6H2O

(b) Salt Petre                               KNO3

Lead (Pb)                     

(a) Galena                                    PbS

(b) Anglesite                                PbCl2

Tin (Sn)                        

(a) Tin Pyrites                              Cu2 FeSnS4

(b) Cassiterite                              SnO2

Silver (Ag)                    

(a) Silver Glance                          Ag2S

Gold (Au)                      (a) Calverite                                 AuTe2

(b) Syvanite                                  AgAuTe2

Mercury (Hg)               

(a) Cinnabar                                 HgS

(b) Calomel                                  Hg2Cl2

Magnesium (Mg)        

(a) Dolomite                                MgCO3 . CaCO3

(b) Karnalite                                 KCl MgCl2 . 6H2O

Calcium (Ca)                

(a) Lime Stone                             CaCO3

(b) Dolomite                                MgCO3 . CaCO3

Phosphorous (P)          

(a) Phosphorite                            Ca3(PO4)

(b) Floreapetite                           3Ca3(PO4)2CaFe2

Human Diseases

  • A disease or medical condition is an abnormal condition of an organism that impairs bodily functions, associated with specific symptoms and signs.
  • It may be caused by external factors, such as infectious disease, or it may be caused by internal dysfunctions, such as autoimmune diseases.
  • In holistic medicine and alternative medicine tradition, disease is said to be caused by energetic imbalances in physical, emotional, spiritual, social and / or environmental needs [ citation needed ].
  • In human beings, “disease” is often used more broadly to refer to any condition that causes pain, dysfunction, distress, social problems, and / or death to the person afflicted, or similar problems for those in contact with the person.
  • In this broader sense, it sometimes includes Injuries, Disabilities, Disorders, Syndromes, Infections, Isolated Symptoms, Deviant Behaviors, and Atypical variations of Structure and Function, while in other contexts and for other purposes these may be considered distinguishable categories.

List of Human Diseases 

Viral Diseases

Chickenpox, Measles, Polio, Rabies, Mumps, Influenza, Hepatitis, Herpes, AIDS, Trachoma (of Cornea)

Human Bacterial Diseases

Cholera, Diphtheria, Tuberculosis, Leprosy, Tetanus, Typhoid, Plague, Whooping Cough, Sore Throat, Pneumonia, Gonorrhoea, Syphilis, Botulism

Human Fungal Diseases

Ringworm, Athlete’s foot, Dhobie itch,

Human Protozoans Diseases

Amoebiasis, Malaria, Sleeping Sick – ness, Kalazar, Diarrhoea, Piarrhoea

National Laboratories and Research Institutions

S. No.             Name                                                                                     Place

1        Central Building Research Institute                                  Roorkee, Uttaranchal

2        Central Drug Research Institute                                        Lucknow, U.P.

3        Central Electro – Chemical Research Institute                  Karaikudi, T.N.

4        Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute         Pilani, Rajasthan

5        Central Food Technological Research Institute                Mysore, Karnataka

6        Central Fuel Research Institute                                        Dhanbad, Jharkhand

7        Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute                 Jadhavpur, W.B.

8        Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants         Lucknow, U.P.

9        Central Leather Research Institute                                   Chennai, T.N.

10      Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute        Durgapur, W.B.

11      Central Mining Research Station                                      Dhanbad, Jharkhand

12      Central Road Research Institute                                       New Delhi, Delhi

13      Central Salt and Marine Chemical Research Institute     Bhavnagar, Gujarat

14      Central Scientific Instruments Organisation                    Chandigarh, Chandigarh

15      Indian Institute of Chemical Biology                                 Kolkatta, W.B.

16      Indian Institute of Petroleum                                            Dehradun, Uttaranchal

17      Industrial Texicology Central Centre                                 Lucknow, U.P.

18      National Aeronautical Laboratory                                     Bangalore, Karnataka

19      National Botanical Research Institute                              Lucknow, U.P.

20      National Chemical Laboratory                                          Pune, Maharashtra

21      National Environment Engineering Institute                    Napery, Maharashtra

22      National Geophysical Research Institute                         Hyderabad, A.P.

23      National Institute of Oceanography                                 Panjim, Goa

24      Bose Research Institute                                                    Kolkata, W.B.

25      National Metallurgical Laboratory                                    Jamshedpur, Jharkhand

26      National Physical Laboratory                                            New Delhi, Delhi

27      Regional Research Laboratories                                  Bhubaneshwer, Orissa; Jorhat,     Assam;  Jammu, J & K; Hyderabad, A.P.

28      Structural Engineering Research Centre                           Roorkee, Uttaranchal, Chennai, T.N.

29      Visvesvarayya Industrial and Technological Museum      Bangalore, Karnataka

30      High Altitude Research Laboratory                                   Gulmarg, J and K

31      Indian Cancer Research Centre                                         Mumbai, Maharashtra

32      Seismic Research Centre                                                  Gaurividanur, Near Bangalore, Karnataka

33      Central Marine Research Station                                      Chennai, T.N.

34      Central Research Laboratory                                             Chennai, T.N.

35      Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology                        Hyderabad, A.P.

36      Council of Scientific and Industrial Research                   New Delhi, Delhi

37      Forest Research Institute                                                  Dehradun, Uttaranchal

38      Indian Institute of Science                                                Bangalore, Karnataka

39      Indian Institute of Sugar Technology                                Kanpur, U.P.

40      Indian Space Research Organisation                                Bangalore, Karnataka

41      Birbal Sahni Institute of Paleobotany                               Lucknow, U.P.

42      All India Institute of Hygiene and Public Health               Kolkata, W.B.

43      All India Institute of Medical Science                               New Delhi, Delhi

44      All India Malaria Institute                                                 Delhi

45      Institute of Ayurvedic Studies and Research                    Jamnagar, Gujarat

46      National Institute of Communicable Diseases                 New Delhi, Delhi

47      Central Research Institute                                                Kasauli, H.P.


The Vitamins are necessary auxiliaries in metabolism. They combine with specific proteins, as parts of various oxidative enzyme systems which are concerned with the breakdown of carbohydrates, proteins, and fat in the body. Thus, they are intimately involved in the mechanism which releases energy, carbon dioxide and water as the end products of metabolism.

  • Vitamins can be broadly divided into Fat Soluble and Water Soluble Vitamins.
  • Vitamins A D E and K are fat-soluble vitamins. Vitamins B ( B1 B2 B6 B12 ) and C are water-soluble.

Vitamin A

  • Year                                      1913
  • Chemical Name                   Retinol
  • Main Metabolic Function     Essential for normal growth and development.
  • For normal function of epithelical cells and normal development of teeth and bones.
  • Prevents Night blindness.
  • Deficiency – Effects              Retarded growth.
  • Reduced resistance to infection.
  • Abnormal function of gastrointestinal, and respiratory tracts due to altered epithelial membranes.
  • Interferes with production of “night purple”.
  • Available                              Milk, Egg yolk, Ghee, Butter, Carrots, Tomatoes, Leafy and Yellow vegetables, Cod liver oil and Fresh fruits.
  • Nature                                  Fat – Soluble

Vitamin B1

  • Year                                      1936
  • Chemical Name                   Thiamine
  • Main Metabolic Function     An important aid in carbohydrate metabolism.
  • Needed for Proper functioning of the digestive tract and nervous system.
  • Deficiency – Effects              Beriberi, Loss of muscle, Loss of appetite.
  • Impaired digestion of starches and sugars.
  • Various nervous disorder coordination.
  • Available                              Peas, Beans and Cereals.
  • Nature                                  Water – Soluble

Vitamin – B2


  • Year                                      1935
  • Chemical Name                   Riboflavin
  • Main Metabolic Function     Needed in formation of certain enzymes and in cellular oxidation.
  • Prevents inflammation of oral mucous membranes and the tongue.
  • Deficiency – Effects              Impaired growth, lassitude and weakness, Causes cheillosis or glossittis, May result in Photophobia and cataracts.
  • Available                              Peas, Beans and Cereals.
  • Nature                                  Water – Soluble

Vitamin – B6

  • Year                                      1934
  • Chemical Name                   Pyridoxine
  • Main Metabolic Function     Acts as do other B vitamins. To break down protein, carbohydrate and fat. Acts as a catalyst in the formation of niacin from tryptophan.
  • Deficiency – Effects              Increased irritability, convulsions and peripheral neuritis. Anorexia, nausea and vomiting.
  • Available                              Peas, Beans and Cereals.
  • Nature                                  Water – Soluble

Vitamin – B12


  • Year                                      1948
  • Chemical Name                   Cyanocobalamin
  • Main Metabolic Function     Essential for development of red blood cells. Required for maintenance of skin, nerve tissues, bone and muscles.
  • Deficiency – Effects              Results in pernicious anaemia. Weakness, fatigue, sore and cracked lips.
  • Available                              Peas, Beans and Cereals.
  • Nature                                  Water – Soluble

Vitamin – C


  • Year                                      1919
  • Chemical Name                   Ascorbic Acid
  • Main Metabolic Function     Needed for form the cementing substance, collagen, in various tissues (skin, dentine, cartilage and bone matrix). Assists in wound healing and bone fractures.
  • Deficiency – Effects              Lowered resistance to infections. Susceptibility to dental cavities, pyotthea and bleeding gums. Delayed wound healing. Specific treatment for Scurvy.
  • Available                              Fresh vegetables, Lemon, Orange, Tomatoes, Cabbage , Turnip and Lettuce (Beetroot).
  • Nature                                  Water – Soluble

Vitamin – D3


  • Year                                      1925
  • Chemical Name                   Cholecalciferol
  • Main Metabolic Function     Regulates absorption of calcium and phosphorus from the intestinal tract. Affords antiachitic activity.
  • Deficiency – Effects              Interferes with utilisation of calcium and phosphorus in bone and teeth formation. Development of bone disease, rickets and caries.
  • Available                              Butter, Milk, Ghee, Cod liver oil, Yolk of Eggs and also in Sunrays.
  • Nature                                  Fat – Soluble

Vitamin – E


  • Year                                      1936
  • Chemical Name                   Tocopherols
  • Main Metabolic Function     Protects tissues, cell membranes and Vitamin A against peroxidation. Helps strengthen red blood cells.
  • Deficiency – Effects              Decreased red blood cell resistance to rupture.
  • Available                              Germinating Wheat.
  • Nature                                  Fat – Soluble

Vitamin – K


  • Year                                      1935
  • Chemical Name                   Phytonadione
  • Main Metabolic Function     Essential for formation of normal amounts of prothrombin and blood coagulation.
  • Deficiency – Effects              Diminished blood clotting time. Increased incidence of hemorrhages.
  • Available                              Fish, Wheat and Oats.
  • Nature     Fat – Soluble