The section deals with the questions of Jumbled paragraph and sentences and sentence and phrase arrangement of the given phrases or sentences. The student has to choose a logical sequence to make a meaningful sentence or paragraph. This form of exercise tests the student’s ability to:
- Figure out the logic of the events
- Sequence different parts of a combination according to correct grammatical usage.
In either sentence or paragraph structuring, the student has to check which part follows the other according to the logical theme of the sentence/paragraph.
- Phrase arrangement or Jumbled Sentence.
- Sentence arrangement or Jumbled Paragraph.
In a jumbled sentence, a sentence is broken into four parts and the student has to figure out, the right sequence to form a logical, sensible sentence.
Jumbled Sentences Solving Strategies
Consider then following example.
- P: by her indulgent parents
- Q: the child was so spoiled
- R: when she did not receive all of their attention
- S: that she pouted and became sullen
In this question, a single sentence has been broken into four different parts and the student has to find out the logical sequence of the sentence. In order to do that, consider the following.
Solving Strategy I:
Decide on the opening phrase, first. The opening part of the sentence will usually contain the subject of the sentence. To locate the subject and select that part as the first in sequence. Now, select all options in the answer that begin with part you have chosen as the first.
In example 1, the subject is the child and the opening part will be Q, thus, we can eliminate option (1). Now, since the subject is passive, the verb form will be followed by ‘by’ and the doer. So, find the second part beginning from by and containing the doer of the action which in this case is P. Thus, we can reach the right answer, option (3).
Solving Strategy II:
If the Subject is passive, mostly, the following part will begin with ‘by and contain the doer of the action in the sentence.
Unsurpassed power (P)/modern society (Q)/in (R)/ women enjoy (S)
The subject of the sentence is women so the opening part would be S. Thus, we have to choose between options (2) and (3). The subject in this sentence is active. So, we must find the object which will be the next part. In the given question, the object is unsurpassed power. Thus, the answer is (3).
Solving Strategy III:
When the subject is active, follow the sequence- SUBJECT – VERB – OBJECT
Solving Strategy IV:
Preposition is never the last part. If a preposition is given as one of the parts match it with other part to find out what will follow the preposition.
In Example 2 ‘in’ could only be followed by Modern society to the last two parts of the sentence would be (R) and (P).
- P: and was at once convinced
- Q: he sent a few copies of the book to well known poetry
- R: Shaw read the first few lines of the volume
- S: and awaited their reaction
- T: that what he was reading was real poetry
Now, in the given questions there will appear two subjects ‘shaw’ in (R) and ‘he’ in (Q). But he is a pronoun, used to replace the noun, Shaw and thus, will follow the noun in the sentence
Solving Strategy V:
If there are noun and pronoun as subjects in the different parts of a sentence, the part with the noun will be the opening part. Thus in example 3, the opening part is (R), so we have to choose from Option (1) and (3).
Now, we have to figure out the last part of the sentence. Clearly, the given sentence consists of two parts, one with the subject Shaw and other with the subject ‘he’. The part with the subject ‘he’ will follow the other so, the predicate of the phrase with the subject ‘he’ will be the last part of the sentence. Thus, the last past of example III will be (S). The correct answer is (1).
Solving Strategy VI:
Predicate is the last part of the sentence.
Now, let us consider Jumbled Paragraphs.
In this type of question, a paragraph will be broken into four or more parts and the students will be asked to find out the right sequence.
- P: In emission testing, the govt. fixes the total amount of pollution that is acceptable to mountain a desired level of air quality.
- Q: Economist argue this approach makes air pollution control more cost effective than the current practice of fixing air pollution standards and expecting all companies to pollute below these standards.
- R: US A uses emission trading to control air pollution.
- S: It, then, distributes emission permits to all companies in the region which add up to the overall acceptable level of emission.
Solving Strategy VII:
Find the opening sentence or the concluding sentence.
In Example 4, (R) is the probable opening statement, so we have to choose between (1) and (4).
Solving Strategy VIII:
Sentences with demonstrative pronouns or word like this, that, these or then, moreover, therefore, meanwhile are not opening sentences.
In example 4 we see, Q follows R and S follow P. If (R) is the first statement then Q cannot be the last. Therefore, S is the concluding statement, so the right answer is (4).
- P: In his first inaugural address he concluded with an eloquent plea: “Ask not what your country can do you – ask what you can do for your country”.
- Q: John F Kennedy, Democratic leader in the elections of 1960 was at 43, the youngest man ever to win the presidency
- R: On television, in a series of debates with opponent Richard Nixon, he appeared able, articulate and energetic.
- S: In the campaign, he spoke of moving aggressively into the new decade, for “the new Frontier is here whether we seek it or not.”
Now, Q will be the opening sentence since all others contain a pronoun and Q contains a noun subject so, we have to choose between (2) & (4).
In (2) R follows Q and in (4) P follows Q but P appears to be a concluding sentence hence, (2) is the right answer.
Types of Jumbled Paragraphs
4 Sentences Paragraphs
In this the jumbled paragraph consists of 4 sentences which have to be put in correct order.
- P: Even more complex life can adapt to hostile places.
- Q: We know that a functioning ecosystem does not require sunlight or photosynthesis.
- R: When scientists in the deep sea submarine went tooling around the mid-ocean ridges, they found hot vents covered with shrimps and countless tube worms.
- S: In the early 1990s, researches found that the basaltic rock deep beneath Washington state contains an abundance of microbes totally cut off from the photosynthetic world.
It is clear that (R) is an example of idea expressed in (P) and (S) is an example of an idea expressed in (Q), so, R will follow (P) and (s) will follow (Q). Thus, sequence is only part (1). Thus, it is the right answer.
Solving Strategy I:
Examples always follow the idea.
5 Sentences Paragraphs
This type of jumbled paragraph question is same as the previous one only the paragraph is divided into 5 sentences instead of 4.
- P: Michal Hofman, a poet and translator, accepts this very fact without approval.
- Q: But thanklessness and impossibility do not daunt him.
- R: He acknowledge too infact, he returns to the point often the best translators of poetry always fail at some level.
- S: Hofman feels passionately about his work and this is clear from his writing.
- T: In terms of gap between worth and rewards, translators come somewhere near nurses & objects.
T is the introductory statement of the paragraph in example 7 so, we have a choice between (1) and (2). The rest of the pattern is same in both the options only the concluding line is different. Q will not be the concluding sentence since, it begins with a conjunction ‘but’ which follows the previous statement R. There is no possibility of the conjuction ‘but’ after (S) and hence, (S) will be the concluding statement. Thus, the right answer is (2).
- P: In a number of cases, the drivers have refused to carry passengers according to the meter reading dispite its being in working condition.
- Q: For instance, according to a complaint, the driver of an auto rickshaw not only misbehaved but also ran away with Rs. 500 from Dhaula Kuan on Dec.13
- R: Refusal to carry commuters to their respective destination is another common complaint which has been lodged with call centres.
- S: What have been the most shocking are the complaints about misbehaviour by the rickshaw drivers with the passengers
- T: Similarly, another driver ran away with the luggage of the passenger on the Karol-Bagh-Pachim Vihar route.
Following the strategy, Q is an example for (S) and thus, will follow it, (T) is also another example for S and thus, will follow Q. So, the sequence SQT should appear in the paragraph. Also examples are usually towards the end and not in the beginning. Thus, sequence is given only in option (c). Thus (c) is the right answer.
6 Sentences Paragraphs
In this type of jumbled paragraph question, there are six sentences. However, not all six of them are jumbled, the first and the last sentence of the paragraph are given but the included four sentences are jumbled. It is the sequence of these four sentences that the student has to find.
- 1. The list of horror goes on
- A. And one in every five is malnourished.
- B. This is because local clinics, ill equipped to deal with even small things, ethics don’t work or simply don’t exist.
- C. Nobody has been able to figure out a way to reduce the speed that is at the root of India’s over-population problems: a body born every second.
- D. There is such a shortage of treatment centres that premier hospitals are chocked with patients who show up to treat their coughs and cold
- 6. Kalyan Banerjee, a consultant at the hospital is worried
Solving Strategy II:
For a six sentence question try to find out a link between the first fixed given sentence and any of the four jumbled sentences, that could follow it.
In Example 9, A and B can’t follow (1) because they begin with conjunction while (1) ended without a possibility of a conjunction (3) appears to be the logical sentence following (1). (A) follows (C) and (B) follows (D). Thus, the sequence will be 1CABD6, that is the option (4).
Solving Strategy III:
If you cannot find a link between the first fixed sentence and the jumbled sentence, find a link between the last fixed sentence and a sentence from the jumbled ones that may proceed it.
- 1. As an economy expands, so does the need for cash or fuel growth.
- A. An important one is a rule insisting that any purchase of share amounting to 20% or more of the listed stock of a company has to be announced before the purchase goes ahead.
- B. It also has computerised trading and a whole host of new regulations.
- C. Today the exchange has an impressive new home or the city’s major business artery.
- D. Pushed by the govt. deregulations, the Jakarata stock exchange is beginning to come of age after emerging from dormancy only 8 yrs. ago.
- 6. Thus, new ruling plus many other improvements to protect investors have helped boost confidence in the market.
Now, we can easily see the link between the concluding fixed line 2 and A-the rule. Thus, the last part before (2) should be A. Thus, sequence is available only in option (1) which will be the right answer.
B elaborates the exchange which was already mentioned in C and therefore, must follow (C).
So, 1DCBA6 is the correct sequence.
Solving Strategy IV:
If you are unable to find links with either of the fixed sentence, use the previous strategies to find links between the jumbled sentence and check out the sequence in the given options.